In this article, the author proposes a revision of the theoretical foundations of criminology, pointing to the construction of what he calls a Sociological Theory of Crime. The main issue in these pages is the construction of the theoretical concept of "social divergence", based on the geometric theory and introduced as a substitute for the concept of "social deviance", which is the most popular term, both in general sociology and in criminology. The novel concept of "divergence", as an expression used to characterise behaviours (politically) defined to be criminal, kits the criminological theory out with new descriptive and interpretative dimensions that are lacking in the traditional conception of deviance. A new understanding of criminology, dealing with its conception, contents and method, emerges as a corollary of the notion of divergence and some additional concepts as introduced by Silva García. The concept of "divergence" thus becomes a necessary premise for revising the object of criminological studies. In this scenario, the three most traditional positions on this topic are briefly reviewed and contrasted: the study of crime, the study of social control and the eclectic position. A fourth alternative is then presented, which postulates deviation and social control as the object of criminological studies. Deviation and social control are considered as two dialectically interacting issues, the constructive elements of crime as a sociological phenomenon. The author also states the theoretical need for an integral analysis that would embrace the micro-sociological and macro-sociological approaches to continuously interacting social life, social action and social structure.