This essay gives an environmental and cultural perspective on the history of Lexington, Kentucky, at the turn of eighteenth-century. The name of the city recalls not only the starting point of the War for Independence in Massachusetts, but it represents the spirit itself of the American Revolution, symbolizing the American farmers’ devotion to liberty and the integrity of rural life. By exploring the ecological and cultural changes of the city, this work describes the shift from Indian to White control of the early American frontier. Indian violence was exaggerated: just one colonist was killed by the Indians near the town. On the counterpoint, the Indians were forced to leave their land and the «embattled farmers» created in Kentucky also the institutions that formed the core of the American republic.