The aim of the paper is to reconsider the Italian transport policy. First, the six main
transport policies implemented in Italy since the sixties are deeply analysed: building of infrastructure; supply of public services; promotion of competition; reduction of external costs; internationalisation; promotion of innovation. Then, they are compared using four Kuhnian paradigms of state intervention in the economy.
Finally, two conclusions come out: 1) the today prevailing competitive paradigm is not adequate to promote and to make viable the creation of new transport systems; 2) there is a need to explicitly refer to structural and dynamic paradigms as the theoretical foundations of an entirely new transport policy.