Michelism was defeated in Portugal in 1834, after a civil war, and king Miguel I was forced to go in exile. He died in 1866 without ever going back to Portugal. During his exile years Portugal always supported the chance that he might recover the throne, both with guerrilla and attempts of insurrections and with the nearly messianic hope of his return nurtured by his followers. The onset of false Dom Miguel belong to this second line. The most famous doubles however were not historical but literary. Its creator was the novelist Camilo Castelo Branco, one of the main Portuguese writers of the time and author of the famous novel A
Brasileira de Prazins.