The growing complexity of competitive environment and technological change fosters the use of individual and collective intelligence in productive chains. Science, machines, computing algorithms, formal procedures are not the more suitable means for managing this type of competitive situations. Since increasing productivity is based on a greater role of individual and social entrepreneurship, local cultures and societies are moving towards the frontier of innovation. But they cannot fulfill this difficult role if local productive systems fail to renew their identities and products. Only strong innovation strategies that can overcome past legacy and aim at new shared projects. New ideas are joint with investments and risks, that are a private but also a social concern. So, decisions about new local identities and investments need a serious change of the power structure that exists in many local systems. Continuity is not enough. Some form of discontinuity in productive structures and in political and social institution is required.