The Industrial Districts in the Third Millennium: Old Gives Way to New in Many Unexpected Ways - What is the future of the industrial districts? Various researches show that the Italian industrial districts are rapidly changing. But they are not about to disappear: on the contrary, they are evolving towards more complex networked and multi-localized forms of organization. A recent book, edited by Fabrizio Guelpa and Stefano Micelli, depicts the main features and stages in this transformation, which is crucial for the future competitiveness of Italian economy, as a whole, and for the expected productivity growth of its different regional systems. On this basis, the articles seeks to trace out the districts’ evolutionary paths in a long-period perspective. The idea proposed is that local production chains will become immaterial multi-localized networks, growing around some key-ideas (quality of life, full service flexibility, cultural models, emotional experience) and some sense-making processes of value production.