L’esperienza della Sicilia nella costruzione e nell’uso di un indice sintetico di posizione socioeconomica per la stima della salute nella popolazione - A regional socioeconomic index by municipality was build for the fist time. From last census (2001) was considerated education, employment, family, house condition ad immigration. Socioeconomic index was used to describe mortality in general people, highlighting that the social and economic disadvantage is a mortality predictor factor, different in both gender. Moreover it was used to adjust the estimates of mortality and morbidity in residents near the risk areas of Sicily. Key words: socioeconomic position, deprivation, mortality, risk area, petrochemical, epidemiology, Sicily. Parole chiave: posizione socioeconomica, deprivazione, mortalità, area a rischio, petrolchimico, epidemiologia, Sicilia.