Gli psichiatri di Hitler. Un insight storico ed etico - Many influential doctors including prominent psychiatrists played an important and pivotal role in the plans of the Nazi regime. This article examines their activities in helping to facilitate the two processes of sterilization and euthanasia and well as detailing the specific behavior and status of several of these members of the psychiatric profession. In addition, mention is made of the practice of the profession in Italy briefly describing the fate of some of the psychiatric patients, that of Jewish psychiatrists and those supporting the racist Nazi policies. Finally, reasons for why psychiatrists were so prominently involved are proposed as well as suggestion as to where they erred in ethical decision making. The importance of ethics teaching with a focus of history of the profession is advocated as well as a warning of the dangers of allowing political and economic pressures to affect clinical practice and judgment. Keywords: psychiatry, Nazi, Holocaust, euthanasia, sterilization, Italy.