The Francoist Repression: Historical Research and the Debate on Memory - In Spain the recognition of the "repressed memories" has earned a remarkable public presence since the ’90s, similarly to what occurred in most of the western world. In the Spanish case the attention focused on the "memory of the defeated" in the Civil War, which had been systematically silenced during the almost forty years of dictatorship and, to a large extent, during the following two decades too. In parallel with that, in the last quarter of the century there has been an outstanding accumulation of historical knowledge on the many and complementary forms of repression. This has demonstrated the magnitude of physic violence - deaths, concentration camps, imprisonment, work exploitation - as well as legal violence - purging, fines, etc. Francoist repression was much stronger than the one practised by other New Order fascist regimes during peace time. These historical studies have also provided concrete background for movements which for many years have asked for re-cognition from the democratic institutions of victims of Francoism. Key words: Spanish Civil War, Francoist repression, Spanish Civil War historical studies, history and memory, memory public policies, physic and legal violence in Spanish Civil War.