Seeds, peasants and markets: the networks for another agriculture - The search for control over resources, the re-appropriation of knowledge and the development of new relationships of exchange in local markets show the diffusion of original patterns for rural development. Moving from the case of the French association Réseau Semences Paysannes and of some Italian experiences, this paper aims to illustrate the new practices and strategies developed by small rural produces in order to cope with the expropriation process menacing their existence. These are considered as examples of peasant agriculture based on the capacity of re-socializing and re-localizing food. The paper concludes by outlining how these practices can challenge the techno-scientific system of knowledge, the institutional system of governance as well as the economic system of global market. Key words: peasant agriculture; peasant networks; biodiversity; participative selection; farmers markets; rural development practices.