Work transformations and new values.The placement of disadvantaged people: open questions - nowadays, any person involved in work inclusion of disadvantaged individuals feels the need to conceptualize the recent changes in work environments. The latest efforts of scholars and professionals have been, on the one hand, to design for disadvantaged persons schemes of direct access to the labour market, and on the other, to go beyond the concept of employability and reassess other work dimensions. There are no alternative words for defining "reintegration", but in light of the theories and good practices on capacitation, one understands that the responsibility of exclusion is not individual, but collective. This collective responsibility involves: processes of inclusion, recognition of different identities, citizenship and dignity, protection and hospitality. The keyword might be "knowledge", or creating culture through collaboration. The authors outline the development of work environments - from Fordism to post-Fordism - in order to highlight the features of current working conditions, the risks of social vulnerability, and the ongoing social transformations. Finally, they distinguish emerging disadvantaged people from traditionally disadvantaged persons, and raise open questions such as: what action and collaboration should be put into place for work inclusion of disadvantaged people? What are the necessary conditions for employment policies for disadvantaged individuals?
Keywords: flexibility, job insecurity, social vulnerability, work integration, inclusion, capacitation, collective responsibility.
Parole Chiave: flessibilità, precarietà, vulnerabilità sociale, reinserimento sociolavorativo, inclusione, capacitazione, responsabilità collettiva.