Italian NAMEA data at regional level - Istat’s regional NAMEAs (National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts), produced for the first time for the year 2005, present, as far as production activities are concerned, two joint outputs of production activity for each economic sector: the socio-economic values created - value added, employment - on the one hand and, on the other hand, the environmental pressures generated at the same time, namely air emissions; regional NAMEA data also cover households’ air emissions, mainly stemming from private transport and heating, shown side by side to households’ final consumption expenditure incurred to acquire products whose use is at the root of the pressures at issue (e.g fuel). Both environmental and economic data are consistent with the basic concepts and classifications of the standard National Accounts framework, based on the European System of national and regional Accounts (ESA95). Consistency relates specifically to three main issues: i.) residence principle - which requires that both economic and emissions data stem from the activities of resident economic units; ii.) use of economic classifications, namely Nace Rev.1.1 (Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community, Rev. 1.1) for industries and Coicop (Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose) for households’ consumption; iii.) coverage in both emissions and economic data of the principal as well as secondary and ancillary activities that industries may undertake (i.e. support activities such as own account transport). Economic data, derived by regional economic accounts, are by their nature consistent with ESA95 concepts and principles. Environmental data, on the other hand, are based on the air emission inventory at the Nuts (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) 3 level, produced by Ispra (Institute for Environmental Protection and Research); they need to be adjusted to become consistent with National Accounting principles and classifications. The first main adjustment relates to the residence principle; as the inventory covers emissions that broadly correspond to the geographic territory, compliance with the residence principle requires to estimate and add the emissions of residents operating abroad as well as to estimate and deduct the emissions of non-residents operating in the country. The second main adjustment relates to the use of economic classifications and requires to re-assign the emissions from the process-oriented SNAP-nomenclature (Selected Activities for Air Pollution) to industries (by Nace Rev.1.1) and private households’ consumption functions (by Coicop). In addition to enabling the assessment of the share of pollutants produced by households’ consumption versus production activities in the various regions, regional Nameas allow the joint use of economic and environmental data for analytical purposes such as comparing sector environmental profiles for the various regional territories, comparing sector environmental intensities (emissions per unit of value added) among Italian regions, etc. In addition to Namea-type data, further developments of regional environmental accounting appear to be technically feasible, thus allowing to enhance the available integrated environmental and economic information basis at the sub-national level.
Keywords: Environmental accounting, NAMEA, air emissions, climate change, environmental profile, ESA95 (European System of national and regional accounts)
Jel Code: Q53, Q54, Q56, Q58, R1