The topic of this article is changing conception of unemployment, following the labour market reform carried out in Italy in the last 15 years. According with active labour policies, unemployment is now depending also from income level. Consequently, unemployment has become more difficult to define and to manage. Secondly workers can more easily lose a number of benefits resulting from the unemployment, i.e. when income level is too "high" also because of a precarious work. But reforming this particular labour sector was not able to lower the number of "real" unemployed and contradicts the spirit of active labor market policies, tending to exclude those who have an insecure employment and thus legitimizing precarious work. Finally, we will try to understand from the cultural point of view, the reasons for the bond placed between unemployment and income.
Keywords: Unemployment, Market Labour Reform in Italy, Social development