The issues of health and its protection have deep roots in the passage from nomadism to widespread settled populations. Later, cities launched an ambitious challenge in the 13th and 14th centuries, with the construction of leper houses for health control in the community. In the centuries that followed, history is rich in examples of a search for well-being ranging from utopian socialist proposals, to those of doctors, hygienists and health engineers which changed the face of cities. The state of a person’s health, as defined in the last century, is a condition of the mental and physical equilibrium of an individual per se and in their relationship with the environment. If health is not just the absence of disease and well-being is determined, amongst other things, by environmental, social, cultural and economic factors, the development of cities must lie with a search for high quality and sustainability.
Keywords: Health; environment; sustainability