In this essay the complex relationship between economic development and energetic resources is discussed. Is is proposed the relevance - on this issue - of a well known distinction between economic development and economic growth and its implications via à vis of a more and more problematic perspective of managing a distributive conflict based on the competition for the use and control of energetic resources at a global scale. The contradictory Italian experience is also analysed. In this case, the dualistic nature of the system requires at the same moment to pursue the difficult task of promoting economic development of the Southern Regions in a framework characterized by a clear perspective of a limited growth at a national level.
Keywords: Energy, Economic Development, Economic Growth, Italian Mezzogiorno