This paper investigates the documental sources held in the Italian public archives (State Archive of Siena, Central State Archive in Rome, Records of the Historical Office of the Army General Staff) concerning war crimes committed in the province of Siena from 1943 to 1944 by the German and Rsi armed forces. The crimes in question are ordered by six categories (murder, wounding, rape, raid, damage to private and public property, confiscation of private and public property) and referred to three different temporal phases. The first phase includes the crimes committed from September 1943 to March 1944, predominantly by the fascists; a second phase concerns the mop-up actions against the partisans of March 1944; the last phase is characterized by the crimes perpetrated during the German retreat in the summer of 1944. The data collected shed a clear light on the combination of political violence and material spoliation practiced not only by the Germans, but also by the Rsi armed forces.
Keywords: War crimes, Siena, Nazi occupation in Italy, Italian Social Republic, World War II, political violence