The evolution of the concept of education has suffered and is affected by changes that have taken place within civil society. In the contemporary age, the most significant change is related to the presence of a plurality of cultures within the modern nationstates. In particular, in education,
multiculturalism poses major challenges to the concept of paideia in its classical connotation of "education of the citizen" must therefore reconsider its foundations. The article reflect on this issue with reference to the main positions of intercultural education, and take into account the reality of a new intercultural "paideia" in the Italian school context.