Clicca qui per scaricare

Rappresentazioni dell’attaccamento in bambini adottati tramite adozione internazionale
Titolo Rivista: MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA 
Autori/Curatori: Maite Romàn, Jesùs Palacios, Carmen Moreno, Ana Lòpez 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2013 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  24 P. 35-58 Dimensione file:  739 KB
DOI:  10.3280/MAL2013-003003
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


In questo studio sono state analizzate le rappresentazioni dell’attaccamento di un gruppo di 40 bambini adottati tramite adozione internazionale e valutati in media 40 mesi dopo l’adozione attraverso lo Story Stem Assessment Profile. Questi bambini sono stati messi a confronto con 58 bambini che vivevano con le loro famiglie biologiche e senza alcuna esperienza di maltrattamento e con 50 bambini che vivevano in orfanotrofi spagnoli. Tutti i bambini avevano un’età compresa tra i 4 e gli 8 anni al momento dello studio. I risultati hanno indicato che le rappresentazioni dei bambini adottati erano molto più negative di quelle dei bambini del gruppo di controllo, ma simili a quelle dei bambini istituzionalizzati. Sono state inoltre analizzate le associazioni tra diversi indicatori delle rappresentazioni di attaccamento, così come il ruolo delle caratteristiche dei bambini adottati (esperienze preadottive, età all’adozione, tempo trascorso con la famiglia adottiva). I risultati hanno mostrato un impatto a lungo termine degli eventi negativi precoci, un certo grado di varietà nelle rappresentazioni dell’attaccamento sia nei bambini adottati sia istituzionalizzati, e hanno messo in luce il ruolo giocato da determinate variabili di background ed individuali.


Keywords: Adozione, narrazioni sull’attaccamento, rappresentazioni dell’attaccamento, istituzionalizzazione.

  1. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  2. Bettmann, J. E., & Lundahl, B. W. (2007). Tell me a story: A review of narrative assessments for preschoolers. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 24, 455-475.
  3. Bovenschen, I., Nowacki, K., Roland, I., & Spangler, G. (2009, October). Attachment behaviour and representation in foster children: Associations with emotional and behavioural problems. Poster session presented at the International Attachment Conference, Barcelona, Spain.
  4. Bowlby, J. (1958). The nature of the child’s tie to his mother. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 39, 350-373.
  5. Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol.1. Attachment. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  6. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  7. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  8. Bretherton, I., Oppenheim, D., Buchsbaum, H., Emde, R. N., & the MacArthur Narrative Group. (2003). The MacArthur Story Stem Battery. In R. N. Emde, D. P. Wolf, D. Oppenheim (Eds.), Revealing the inner worlds of young children: The MacArthur Story Stem Battery and parent-child narratives (pp. 381-396). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  9. Bretherton, I., Ridgeway, D., & Cassidy, J. (1990). Assessing internal working models of the attachment relationship: An attachment story completion task for 3-year-olds. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the preschool years (pp. 273-308). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  10. Cassidy, J., & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (Ed. rev.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  11. Crittenden, P. M. (1990). Internal representational models of attachment relationships. Infant Mental Health Journal, 11, 259-278.
  12. Euillet, S., Spencer, R., Troupel-Cremel, O., Fresno, A., & Zaouche-Gaudron, C. (2008). Les representations d’attachement des enfants accueillis et des enfants adopte´s [Attachment representations of adopted and foster children]. Enfance, 1, 63-70.
  13. Gogler-Tippelt, G., & Konig, L. (2007). Attachment representations in 6-year-old children from one and two parent families in Germany. School Psychology International, 28, 313-330.
  14. Hodges, J., & Hillman, S. (2009). SSAP Tables (Unpublished manuscript). The Anna Freud Centre, London, UK.
  15. Hodges, J., & Steele, M. (2000). Effects of abuse on attachment representations; Narrative assessments of abused children. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26, 433-455.
  16. Hodges, J., Hillman, S., & Steele, M. (2004). SSAP Coding System (Unpublished manuscript). The Anna Freud Centre, London, UK.
  17. Hodges, J., Steele, M., Hillman, S., & Henderson, K. (2003). Mental representations and defenses in severely maltreated children: A Story Stem Battery and Rating System for clinical assessment and research applications. In R. N. Emde, D. P. Wolf, D. Oppenheim (Eds.), Revealing the inner worlds of young children. The MacArthur Story Stem Battery and Parent-Child Narratives (pp. 240-267). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  18. Hodges, J., Steele, M., Hillman, S., Henderson, K., & Kaniuk, J. (2003). Changes in attachment representations over the first year of adoptive placement: Narratives of maltreated children. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 8, 351-368.
  19. Hodges, J., Steele, M., Hillman, S., Henderson, K., & Kaniuk, J. (2005). Change and continuity in mental representations of attachment after adoption. In D. M. Brodzinsky, J. Palacios (Eds.), Psychological issues in adoption: Research and practice (pp. 93-116). Westport, CT: Praeger.
  20. Juffer, F., Palacios, J., LeMare, L., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Tiemann, W., Bakermans- Kranenburg, M., Vorria, P., van IJzendoorn, M., Verhulst, F. C. (2011). Development of adopted children with histories of early adversity. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 76, 4, 31-61.
  21. Kaniuk, J., Steele, M., & Hodges, J. (2004). Report on a longitudinal research project, exploring the development of attachments between older, hard-to-place children and their adopters over the first two years of placement. Adoption & Fostering, 28, 61-67.
  22. Katsurada, E. (2007). Attachment representation of institutionalized children in Japan. School Psychology International, 28, 331-345.
  23. Main, M., Kaplan, N., & Cassidy, J. (1985). Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. In I. Bretherton, E.Waters (Eds.), Growing points of attachment theory and research. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50, 1, 66-104.
  24. McRoy, R. G. (1999). Special needs adoption. Practice issues. New York, NY: Garland Publishing.
  25. Mendoza, E., Carballo, G., Munoz, J., & Fresneda, M. D. (2005). Test de Comprension de Estructuras Gramaticales. Madrid: TEA Ediciones.
  26. Miller, L., Chan, W., Comfort, K., & Tirella, L. (2005). Health of children adopted from Guatemala: Comparison of Orphanage and Foster Care. Pediatrics, 115, e710-e717.
  27. Ministerio de Sanidad, Polıtica Social e Igualdad. (2012). Datos de adopcion internacional, 2006–2011 [Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality, Intercountry adoption statistics 2006–2011]. Disponibile online: http://www.msps.es/politicaSocial/familiasInfancia/adopciones/estadistias.htm
  28. Minnis, H., Millward, R., Sinclair, C., Kennedy, E., Greig, A., Towlson, K., et al. (2006). The Computerized MacArthur Story Stem Battery - A pilot study of a novel medium for assessing children’s representations of relationships. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 15, 207-214.
  29. Newborg, J., Stock, J. R., Wnek, L., Guildubaldi, J., & Svinicki, J. (1988). Battelle developmental inventory with recalibrated technical data and norms. Chicago, IL: Riverside.
  30. Nowacki, K., Roland, I., Bovenschen, I., & Spangler, G. (2009, October). The influence of foster parents’ state of mind on the development of attachment behaviour and representation in foster children. Poster session presented at the International Attachment Conference, Barcelona, Spain.
  31. Oppenheim, D. (2006). Child, parent, and parent-child emotion narratives: Implications for developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 18, 771-790.
  32. Page, T. (2001). Attachment themes in the family narratives of preschool children: A qualitative analysis. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 18, 353-375.
  33. Palacios, J., Roman, M., & Camacho, C. (2011). Growth and development in internationally adopted children: Extent and timing of recovery after early adversity. Child: Care, Health & Development, 37, 282-288.
  34. Pascual, J. (2000). Adopta en Rusia [Adopt in Russia]. Disponibile online: http://adoptaenrusia.net46.net/
  35. Pierrehumbert, B., Santelices, M. P., Ibanez, M., Alberdi, M., Ongari, B., Roskam, I., et al. (2009). Gender and attachment representations in the preschool years. Comparisons between five countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 543-566.
  36. Roman, M. (2010). El apego en ninos y ninas adoptados. Modelos internos, conductas y trastornos de apego [Attachment in adopted children. Attachment representations, behavior and disturbances] (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Seville, Spain.
  37. Rushton, A., Dance, C., Quinton, D., & Mayes, D. (2001). Siblings in late permanent placement. London: BAAF.
  38. Steele, M., Hodges, J., Kaniuk, J., Steele, H., Hillman, S., & Asquith, K. (2008). Forecasting outcomes in previously maltreated children: The use of the AAI in a longitudinal adoption study. In H. Steele, M. Steele (Eds.), Clinical applications of the Adult Attachment Interview (pp. 427-451). New York, NY: Guilford.
  39. Stievenart, M., Roskam, I., Meunier, J. C., & van de Moortele, G. (2011). The reciprocal relation between children’s attachment representations and their cognitive ability. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 58-66.
  40. Thompson, R. A. (2008). Attachment-related mental representations: Introduction to the special issue. Attachment & Human Development, 10, 347-358.
  41. van den Dries, L., Juffer, F., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2009). Fostering security? A meta-analysis of attachment in adopted children. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 410-421.
  42. van den Dries, L., Juffer, F., van IJzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2010). Infant’s physical and cognitive development after international adoption from foster care or institutions in China. Journal of Behavioral and Developmental Pediatrics, 31, 144-150.
  43. van IJzendoorn, M. H., Palacios, J., Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Gunnar, M. R., Vorria, P., McCall, R. B., Le Mare, L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Dobrova-Krol, N. A., Juffer, F. (2011). Children in institutional care: Delayed development and resilience. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 76, 4, 8-30.
  44. Vorria, P., Papaligoura, Z., Sarafidou, J., Kopakaki, M., Dunn, J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., et al. (2006). The development of adopted children after institutional care: A follow-up study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1246-1253.
  45. Zeanah, Ch. (2000). Disturbances and disorders of attachment in early childhood. In Ch. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed.) (pp. 358-362). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Maite Romàn, Jesùs Palacios, Carmen Moreno, Ana Lòpez, in "MALTRATTAMENTO E ABUSO ALL’INFANZIA" 3/2013, pp. 35-58, DOI:10.3280/MAL2013-003003

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche