Are Italians capable of halting their decline The majority of Italians detest regulations and laws, they have little faith in each other and even less in institutions; they are little concerned about their inconsistencies. "Particularism" synthesizes all these negative traits; it finds expression in forms that range from tribalism (the extended family) to provincialism and corporate loyalty. The Italians have a huge public debt, a bloated and inefficient public administration, markets rendered ineffective by position of privilege, small and medium-sized businesses that collapse in international competition, and institutions that impede their own effective governance. Berlusconi embodies this particularism and represents the illusion of many Italians to be able to live in illegality and without paying taxes. Grillo is the illusion of living without politicians. The Italian capacity for halting decline is uncertain, even if there exist antiparticularist forces. One begins to doubt that Italians care for the truth.
Keywords: Particularism, illusion, uncertainty