Clicca qui per scaricare

Extended producer responsibility and e-waste management: do institutions matter ?
Autori/Curatori: Marinella Favot 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2014 Fascicolo: 1  Lingua: Inglese 
Numero pagine:  22 P. 123-144 Dimensione file:  210 KB
DOI:  10.3280/EFE2014-001006
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 

WEEE (waste from electrical and electronic equipment, known also as e-waste) is the fastest growing category of waste with 50 million tons generated worldwide each year and it increases at a rate of 3-5% per year (Onyenekenwa et al., 2011). In Europe e-waste issue has been tacked with a specific directive named WEEE Directive (Directive 2002/96/EC). This directive includes a policy principle known as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The novelty of this research is to relate New Institutional Economics framework to EPR and to analyse in detail the applications of EPR and the results. More specifically, we investigate how the European regulation on e-waste (that includes the EPR principle) changes the institutional settings according to different options available. One of these options regards the individual producer responsibility choice versus the collective producer responsibility alternative. This article also presents a case study on how the introduction of WEEE Directive in Italy has changed the financial, physical and informative responsibilities for producers and municipalities. One important result is that the target of collection of e-waste set at 4 kg per habitant per year by the Directive, was reached in 2010. We conclude that EPR changes the institutional settings and achieve the internalization of externalities. Moreover, we highlight that the results are related to the solutions adopted within the EPR principle. We also point out that the recast of the European Directive in 2012 redefined the collection targets of e-waste and Italy will face a big challenge in order to reach those new goals.

Keywords: PPP, Extended Producer Responsibility, EPR, e-waste, WEEE Directive, New Institutional Economics
Jel Code: Q53, Q55, D02

  1. Andersen S., (1994), “Governance by Green Taxes: Making Pollution Prevention Pay”. Manchester University Press.
  2. Atasu A., Subramanian. R. (2012), “Extended Producer Responsibility for E-Waste: Individual or Collective Producer Responsibility?” Production and Operations Management.
  3. Atasu A., van Wassenhove L.N. (2011), “An Operations Perspective on Product Take-Back Legislation for E-Waste: Theory, Practice, and Research Needs.” Production and Operations Management. Atasu A., van Wassenhove L.N., Sarvary M. (2009), “Efficient take-back legislation”. INSEAD working paper series. Fontainebleau: INSEAD Social Innovation.
  4. Bromley D.W. (1991), “Environment and Economy: Property Rights and Public Policy” Oxford, UK. Basil Blackwell (eds).
  5. CdC Raee (2008), “Rapporto annuale 2008 sul sistema di ritiro e trattamento dei Raee in Italia” published by Centro di Coordinamento Raee.
  6. Coase R.H. (1960), “The problem of social cost”. Journal of Law and Economics.
  7. Coase R.H. (1937), “The Nature of the Firm”. Economica.
  8. Dahlman C.J. (1979), “The problem of externality”. Journal of Law and Economics. Decree n. 65/2010, Decreto Ministeriale del 8 marzo 2010, n. 65. Ministro dell’ambiente e della tutela del territorio e del mare. Dempsey M., van Rossem C., Lifset R., Linnell J., Gregory J., Atasu A., Perry J., Sverkman A., van Wassenhove L.N., Therkelsen M., Sundberg V., Mayers
  9. K., and Kalimo H. (2010), “Individual Producer Responsibility: A Review of Practical Approaches to Implementing Individual Producer Responsibility for the WEEE Directive”. INSEAD working paper series. Fontainebleau: INSEAD Social Innovation.
  10. Demsetz H., (1967), “Toward a Theory of Property Rights”. The American Economic Review.
  11. Ecodom (2011), “Household WEEE generated in Italy. Analysis on volumes and consumer disposal behaviour for waste electrical and electronic equipment”.
  12. Ecodom publication. European Commission DG Enterprise and industry (2008), “Study on RoHS and WEEE Directives N° 30-CE-0095296/00-09”
  13. Favot M., Marini A., in press, “Increase of consumer prices of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) after the introduction of the WEEE Directive in Europe”. Forthcoming, Journal of Industrial Ecology.
  14. Glachant J-M., Perez Y. (2008), “Regulation and deregulation in the network industry” In “New Institutional economics. A guidebook”. Edited by Eric Brousseau and Jean-Michel Glachant. Cambridge University Press.
  15. Gottberg A., Morris J., Pollard S., Mark-Herbert C., Cook M. (2006), “Producer responsibility, waste minimisation and the WEEE Directive: Case studies in ecodesign from the European lighting sector.” Science of The Total Environment.
  16. Gupta S., Palsule-Desai, O.D. (2011), “Sustainable supply chain management: Review and research opportunities”. IIMB Management Review.
  17. Huisman, J., Magalini F., Kuehr R., Maurer C. (2007), “Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)”. Bonn: United Nations University. Report to the European Commission. accessed on 2 December 2012.
  18. Institute for European Environmental Policy (2009), “AReport on the Implementation of Directive 2002/96/EC on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment”.
  19. Kalimo H., Lifset R., van Rossem C., van Wassenhove L., Atasu A. Mayers K.
  20. (2012), “Greening the Economy through Design Incentives: Allocating Extended Producer Responsibility”. European Energy and Environmental Law Review.
  21. Khetriwal D.S., Kraeuchi P. Widmer R. (2007), “Producer responsibility for e-waste management: key issues for consideration - learning from the Swiss experience”. Journal of environmental management.
  22. King, A.M. , Burgess, S.C. , Ijomah, W. , McMahon, C.A. (2006), “Reducing waste: Repair, recondition, remanufacture or recycle?” Sustainable Development.
  23. Lepaws J. (2012), “Legal geographies of e-waste legislation in Canada and the US: Jurisdiction, responsibility and the taboo of production”. Geoforum.
  24. Lindhqvist T. (1998), “What is Extended Producer Responsibility?” International Seminar Lund, Sweden, 1998.
  25. Lindhqvist T. (1992), “Extended Producer Responsibility.” In Extended Producer Responsibility as a Strategy to Promote Cleaner Products, ed. Thomas Lindhqvist. Lund: University of Lund.
  26. Lifset R., Lindhqvist T. (2008), “Producer Responsibility at a Turning Point?” Journal of Industrial Ecology.
  27. Lindhqvist T., R. Lifset (2003), “Can We Take the Concept of Individual Producer Responsibility from Theory to Practice”. Journal of Industrial Ecology.
  28. Lindhqvist T., Lifset R. (1998), “Getting the Goal Right: EPR and DfE.” Journal of Industrial Ecology.
  29. Massarutto A. (2008), “Economic Analysis of Waste Management Systems in Europe”. Sustainable Development and Environmental Management.
  30. Massarutto A. (2007), “Municipal waste management as a local utility: Options for competition in an environmentally-regulated industry”. Utilities Policy. Mayers, C.K. (2007), “Strategic, Financial, and Design Implications of Extended Producer Responsibility in Europe A Producer Case Study. Journal of Industrial Ecology.
  31. Mayers C.K., Lifset R., Bodenhoefer K., van Wassenhove L.N., (2012). “Implementing individual producer responsibility for waste electrical and electronic equipment through improved financing”. Journal of Industrial Ecology.
  32. Mayers C.K., Peagam R., France C., Basson L., Clift R., (2011) “Redesigning the camel. The European WEEE Directive”. Journal of Industrial Ecology.
  33. Menard C., and Shirley M. (2012) “New Institutional Economics: From Early Intuitions to a New Paradigm?” Ronald Coase Institute - Working paper n. 8 Sept 2012.
  34. North D.C. (1992), “Institutions and economic theory”. American Economist.
  35. OECD (2005), “Analytical Framework for Evaluating the Costs and Benefits of Extended Producer Responsibility Programmes”. Paris, OECD.
  36. OECD (2001), “Extended Producer Responsibility. A Guidance Manual for Governments”. Paris, OECD.
  37. Onyenekenwa C.E., AgunwambaJ.C. (2011), “Managing hazardous wastes in Africa: Recyclability of lead from E-waste materials ” Journal of Applied Sciences.
  38. O’Connell M., Hickey S., Besiou M., Fitzpatrick C., Van Wassenhove L.N. (2013), “Feasibility of Using Radio Frequency Identification to Facilitate Individual Producer Responsibility for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. Journal of Industrial Ecology.
  39. Özdemir Ö., Denizel M., Guide V. (2012), “Recovery decisions of a producer in a legislative disposal fee environment”. European Journal of Operational Research.
  40. Plambeck E., Wang Q. (2009), “Effects of E-Waste Regulation on New Product Introduction”. Management Science.
  41. Pigou A. (1920), “The Economics of Welfare” (1920). London: Macmillan and Co. Quinn, L., Sinclair, A.J. (2006), “Policy challenges to implementing extended producer responsibility for packaging”. Canadian Public Administration. Recast of the WEEE Directive, (2012). European Parliament legislative resolution of 19 January 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). European Parliament.
  42. Sachs N. (2006), “Planning the Funeral at the Birth: Extended Producer Responsibility in the European Union and the United States.” Harvard Environmental Law Review.
  43. Sander K., Schilling S., Tojo N., van Rossem C. (2007), “The Producer Responsibility Principle of the WEEE Directive”. Oekopol. Report to the European Commission.
  44. Seufert J. H., Andrew B. (2012), “Environmental Policy Instruments and Policy Principles”. 11th Australasian Centre for Social and Environmental Accounting Research (A-CSEAR) Conference.
  45. The European Recycling Platform, 2012 accessed on 6 July 2012.
  46. Tietenberg T. (2006), “Environmental and Natural Resource Economics”. Pearson Education, Inc. Toffel M.W. (2003), “The Growing Strategic Importance of End-of-Life Product Management”. California Management Review.
  47. Tojo N. (2004), “Extended Producer Responsibility as a Driver for Design Change – Utopia or Reality?” Lund: IIIEE, University of Lund. Doctoral Dissertation.
  48. UN (1997), “Glossary of Environment Statistics, Studies in Methods”. Series F, No. 67, United Nations, New York.
  49. UNEP (2004),. “The use of economic instruments in environmental policy: opportunities and challenges”. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
  50. van Rossem C. (2008), “Individual producer responsibility in the WEEE directive. From Theory to Practice?”. Lund: IIIEE, University of Lund. Doctoral Dissertation.
  51. van Rossem C., Tojo N., Lindhqvist T., (2006a), “Extended Producer Responsibility. An Examination of its Impact on Innovation and Greening Products.” IIIEE.
  52. Report commissioned by Greenpeace International, Friends of the Earth and the European Environmental Bureau. Lund: IIIEE.
  53. van Rossem C., Tojo N., Lindhqvist T., (2006b), “Lost in Transposition? A Study of the Implementation of Individual Producer Responsibility in the WEEE Directive”. Lund: IIIEE.
  54. Walls M. (2006), “Extended producer responsibility and product design: economic theory and selected case studies.” RFF Discussion Paper 6-8.
  55. Webster S., Mitra S. (2007), “Competitive strategy in remanufacturing and the impact of take-back laws”. Journal of Operations Management. WEEE Directive. Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

  1. Mariam Ameli, Saeed Mansour, Amir Ahmadi-Javid, A simulation-optimization model for sustainable product design and efficient end-of-life management based on individual producer responsibility in Resources, Conservation and Recycling /2019 pp. 246, DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.02.031
  2. Antonio Massarutto, Italian waste in the circular economy: A agenda for industry regulators in Italy in ECONOMIA PUBBLICA 1/2019 pp. 9, DOI: 10.3280/EP2019-001002
  3. Prudence Dato, Economic analysis of e-waste market in International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics /2017 pp. 815, DOI: 10.1007/s10784-017-9350-4
  4. Filippo Corsini, Francesco Rizzi, Marco Frey, Institutional legitimacy of non-profit innovation facilitators: Strategic postures in regulated environments in Technology in Society /2018 pp. 69, DOI: 10.1016/j.techsoc.2018.01.002
  5. Anjani R.K. Gollakota, Sneha Gautam, Chi-Min Shu, Inconsistencies of e-waste management in developing nations – Facts and plausible solutions in Journal of Environmental Management 110234/2020 pp. 110234, DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110234

Marinella Favot, in "ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT" 1/2014, pp. 123-144, DOI:10.3280/EFE2014-001006


FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche