Click here to download

Doing internal training: the Italian Revenue Agency experience
Author/s: Raimondo Ingrassia 
Year:  2015 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  28 Pg. 55-82 FullText PDF:  144 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SA2015-002004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 

This study aims a dual purpose: to delineate the framework of the key-factors that induces the organizations to realize internal training processes and verify its validity on the field. Therefore this article is divided into two parts. In the first six key-factors inducing to internal training are identified: workplace specificity, interactions, relationships and communication for learning objectives, person-centered learning, adult education, organizational strategies implementation, costs-benefits analysis of training. Then a working model for internal training is explained. In the second part the field study of internal training system of the Italian Revenue Agency is showed. The study confirms the assumptions of the first part with the exception of the factor "workplace specificity" that has some ambivalence.
Keywords: Internal training, key-factor, Italian Revenue Agency

  1. Argyris C. and Schön D.A. (1978). Organizational Learning: a Theory of Action Perspective. Cambridge (Mass.): Addison-Wesley.
  2. AIF (Associazione Italiana Formatori) (1988). Professione formazione. Milano: Franco Angeli (ristampa 2002, 13ª ed.).
  3. Bartoloni M. (2012). Quanta conoscenza batte nel cuore di ogni impresa. Il Sole 24 Ore del 1 Aprile 2012.
  4. Becker G.S. (1975). Human capital. New York: Columbia University Press (trad. it. Il capitale umano, Bari: Laterza, 2008). Bellinazzo M. (2014). Non solo bliz, l’eredità di Befera. Il Sole24Ore del 14 Maggio 2014.
  5. Billett S. (2004). Learning through work: Workplace participatory practices. In: Rainbird H., Fuller A. and Munro A., eds., Workplace learning in context. London: Routledge: 109-125.
  6. Burke L. and Bandick M. (1997). How to select a consultant. Training and Development, 50: 50-51.
  7. Bushardt S.C., Fretwell C. and Cumbest P.B. (1994). Continuous improvement through employee training: A case example from the financial services industry. The Learning Organization, 1(1): 11-16.
  8. Carnevale A.P. and Schulz E.R. (1990). Return on Investiment: Accounting for Training. Training and Development Journal, July: 1-32.
  9. Chen G. and Klimoski R.J. (2007) Training and development of human resources at work: Is the state of our science strong? Human Resource Management Review, 17: 180-190., DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2007.03.004
  10. Ciborra C. e Lanzara G.F. (a cura di) (1999). Labirinti dell’innovazione. Milano: Etas.
  11. Commissione Europea (2014). Comunicazione della Commissione al Parlamento europeo, al Consiglio, al Comitato economico e sociale europeo e al Comitato delle Regioni del 5 Marzo 2014: 1-21. Testo disponibile al sito
  12. Cortese C.G. e Gatti P. (2010). La formazione in organizzazione. In: Argentero P., Cortese C.G. e Piccardo C. (a cura di) Psicologia delle risorse umane. Milano: Raffello Cortina.
  13. Costa G. e Gianecchini M. (2009). Risorse Umane. Milano: MacGraw-Hill.
  14. Crossley N. (2010). Networks and Complexity: Directions for Interactionist Research? Symbolic Interaction, 33(3): 341-362., DOI: 10.1525/si.2010.33.3.341
  15. D’Abate C.P., Eddy E.R. and Tannenbaum S.I. (2003). What’s in a name? A literaturebased approach to understanding mentoring, coaching, and other constructs that describe developmental interactions. Human Resource Development Review, 2(4): 360-384., DOI: 10.1177/1534484305281006
  16. de Koning J. (1993). Evaluating Training at the Company Level. International Journal of Manpower 14(2/3): 85-93.
  17. Del Bo J.M. (2014). Fra cultura della legalità e super-bliz. Il Sole24Ore del 25 Maggio 2014.
  18. De Sario P. (2005). Professione facilitatore. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  19. Di Capua M. (2012). L’evasione fiscale secondo l’Agenzia delle Entrate: modelli organizzativi, strategie e strumenti di prevenzione e contrasto. In: Giannini S. e Gentile A. (a cura di) Evasione fiscale e «tax compliance». Bologna: il Mulino.
  20. Doeringer P.B. and Piore M.J. (1971). Internal Labor Markets and Manpower Analysis. Armonk (NY): Sharpe.
  21. Eisenberg E. and Goodall H.L. (1993). Organizational Communication. New York: St. Martin Press.
  22. Ellinger A.D., Watkins K.E. and Barnas C.M. (1999). Responding to new roles: A qualitative study of managers as instructors. Management Learning, 30(4): 387-412., DOI: 10.1177/1350507699304001
  23. Engwall L. (2007). The anatomy of management education. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 23, 4-35., DOI: 10.1016/j.scaman.2006.12.003
  24. Eraut M. (2000). Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(1), 113-136.
  25. Eraut M. (2004). Informal learning in the workplace. Studies in Continuing Education, 26(2): 173-247., DOI: 10.1080/158037042000225245
  26. Ferrara M. (2008). La gestione del lavoro flessibile. Torino: Giappichelli.
  27. Friedberg E. (1993) Le pouvoir et la règle. Dynamiques de l’action organisée. Parigi: Seuil (trad. it.: Il potere e la regola. Milano: Etas. 1994). Garibaldi P. (2005). Economia delle risorse umane. Bologna: il Mulino.
  28. Garrick J. (1998). Informal Learning in CorporateWorkplaces. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9(2): 129-143.
  29. Garvin D.A. (1998). Building a Learning Organization. Harvard Business Review on Knowledge Management, July: 47-80.
  30. George J.M. and Jones G.R. (2001). Towards a Process Model of Individual Change in Organizations. Human Relations, april: 419-444., DOI: 10.1177/0018726701544002
  31. Goffman E. (1998). L’ordine dell’interazione. Roma: Armando.
  32. Grandori A. (1996). Disegni di ricerca in organizzazione. In: Costa G. e Nacamulli R.C.D (a cura di, Manuale di Organizzazione Aziendale. Metodi e tecniche di analisi e intervento, vol. 3. Torino: Utet.
  33. Hager P. (1998). Understanding workplace learning: General perspectives. In: Boud D., ed., Current issues and new agendas in workplace learning. Springfield (VA): NCVER: 31-46.
  34. Hansen M.T. (1999). The search-transfer problem: The role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 82-111., DOI: 10.2307/2667032
  35. Harris R. and Simons M. (2000). There are workplace trainers and then there are workplace trainers: Reconceptualising their role as workers and trainers. AVETRA Conference Papers: 1-7.
  36. Hinds P.J., Patterson M. and Pfeffer J. (2001). Bothered by abstraction: The effect of expertise on knowledge transfer and subsequent novice performance. Journal of Applied Psychology. 86(6): 1232-1243., DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.86.6.1232
  37. Howlett M. e Ramesh M. (2003). Come studiare le politiche pubbliche. Bologna: il Mulino.
  38. Hutchins H.M. (2009). In the Trainer’s Voice: A Study of Training Transfer Practices. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 22(1): 69-93., DOI: 10.1002/piq.20046
  39. Hytönen T. (2003). International briefing 14: Training and development in Finland. International Journal of Training and Development, 7(2): 124-137., DOI: 10.1111/1468-2419.00176
  40. Ingrassia R. (2002). L’azione professionale nelle organizzazioni. Padova: Cedam.
  41. Invernizzi E. (2000). La comunicazione organizzativa. Teorie, modelli e metodi. Milano: Giuffrè.
  42. ISFOL (2012). XII Rapporto sulla Formazione Continua (2010-2011). Roma: Ministero del lavoro e delle politiche sociali.
  43. Jacobs R.L. (2003). Structured on-the-job training: Unleashing employee expertise in the workplace (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
  44. Jones G.R. (2007). Organizational Theory, Design, and Change (5th ed.). Prentice Hall (trad. it.: Organizzazione. Milano: Egea).
  45. Kearsley G. (1982). Costs, Benefits, and Productivity in Training Systems. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
  46. Kirkpatrick D.L. (1996). Tecniques for Evaluation Training Program. Training and Development, 5(1): 54-59.
  47. Knowles M.S. (1973). The Adult Learner: A Neclected Species. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company (tr. it: Quando l’adulto impara. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 1997).
  48. Kolb D.A. (1984). Experimental Learning. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice Hall (4th 1990).
  49. Korte R.F. (2006). Training Implementation: Variations Affecting Delivery. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 8(4): 514-527., DOI: 10.1177/1523422306293005
  50. Kotter J.P. and Schlesinger L.A. (1979). Choosing Strategies for Change. Harvard Business Review, 57(2): 1-11.
  51. Kreitner R. and Kinicky A. (2004). Organizational Behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill (6ª ed.) (tr. it. Comportamento organizzativo, Milano: Apogeo, 2004).
  52. Krone K.J., Jablin F.M. and Putnam L.L. (1987). Communication Theory and Organizational Communication: Multiple Perspectives. In: Jablin F.M., Putnam L.L., Roberts K.H. and Porter L.W, Handbook of Organizational Communication. Beverly-Hills: Sage: 18-40.
  53. Latham G.P. (2007), Work Motivation, Thousand Oaks: Sage (tr. it: Motivare al lavoro.Milano: Franco Angeli, 2009).
  54. Lave J. and Wenger E. (1991). Situated learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (trad. it.: L’apprendimento situato. Dall’osservazione alla partecipazione attiva nei contesti sociali. Milano: Erickson, 2006).
  55. Lippi A. e Morisi M. (2005). Scienza dell’amministrazione. Bologna: il Mulino.
  56. Lengermann P.A. (1996). The Benefits and Costs of Training: A Comparison of Formal Company Training, Vendor Training, Outside Seminars, and School Based Training. Human Resource Management, 35 (3): 361-381.
  57. Mackey J. and Evans T. (2011). Interconnecting Networks of Practice for Professional Learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(3): 1-18.
  58. Marsick V. (1987) Work based learning. New York: Croom Helm.
  59. Marsick V. and Watkins K. (1990) Informal and incidental workplace learning. New York: Croom Helm.
  60. Martin H.J. and Hrivnak M.W. (2009). Creating disciples: The transformation of employees into trainers, Business Horizons, 52: 605-616., DOI: 10.1016/j.bushor.2009.07.006
  61. Martini A. e Sisti M. (2009). Valutare il successo delle politiche pubbliche. Bologna: il Mulino.
  62. Montesino M.U. (2002). Strategic alignment of training, transfer-enhancing behaviors, and training usage: A post-training study. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13, 89-108., DOI: 10.1002/hrdq.1015
  63. Noe R.A., Hollenbeck J.R., Gerhart B. and Wright P.M. (2010). Human resource management (7th ed.). Chicago: MacGraw-Hill (trad. it. Gestione delle risorse umane. Milano: Apogeo, 2012).
  64. Nonaka I. and Takeuchi H. (1995). The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. New York: Oxford University Press
  65. (trad. it.: The Knowledge-Creating Company. Milano: Guerini e Associati. 1997).
  66. OCDE (2006), Boosting Jobs and Incomes: 1-26. Testo disponibile al sito
  67. Parsloe E. and Wray M. (2000). Coaching and Mentoring: Practical Methods to Improve Learning, London: Kogan Page.
  68. Pearce J., Mann M.K., Jones C., van Buschbach S., Olff M. and Bisson J.I. (2012). The most effective way of delivering a Train-The-Trainers programme: A systematic review. The Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 32(3): 215-226., DOI: 10.1002/chp
  69. Poell R.F., Van der Krogt F.J. and Wilderneersch D. (1999). Strategies in Organizing Work-Related Learning Projects. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 10 (1): 43-61., DOI: 10.1002/hrdq.3920100105
  70. Poell R.F., Van der Krogt F.J., Vermulst A.A., Harris R. and Simons M. (2006). Roles of Informal Workplace Trainers in Different Organizational Contexts: Empirical Evidence from Australian Companies. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 17(2): 175-198., DOI: 10.1002/hrdq.1168
  71. Poell R.F., Yorks L. and Marsick V.J. (2009). Organizing Project-Based Learning in Work Contexts. A Cross-Cultural Cross Analysis of Data from Two Projects, Adult Education Quarterly, 60(1): 77-93.
  72. Pollit C. and Bouckaert G. (2000). Public Management Reform. Oxford: Oxford University Press (trad. it.: La riforma del management pubblico. Milano: Egea, 2002).
  73. Pollitt C. (2005). Ministries and agencies: steering, meddling, neglect and dependency. In: Painter M. and Pierre J., eds., Challenges to state policy capacity: global trends and comparative perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan: 112-136. Reed O.S. (2002). The New Organization and Implication for Training. Performance Improvement, 41(5): 24-28., DOI: 10.1002/pfi.4140410507
  74. Resnick L.B. (1987). Learning in school and out. Educational Researcher, 16: 13-20.
  75. Santoro A. (2010). L’evasione fiscale. Bologna: il Mulino.
  76. Senge P.M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday (trad. it.: La quinta disciplina. L’arte e la pratica dell’apprendimento organizzativo. Milano: Sperling&Kupfer, 2006).
  77. Serio L. (2009). La formazione: dall’aula all’e-learning. In: Boldizzoni D., a cura di, Management delle risorse umane. Milano: Il Sole 24 Ore.
  78. Shockley-Zalabak P. (1999). Fundamentals of Organizational Communication. New York: Longman.
  79. Simons M., Harris R. and Bone J. (1999). Workplace Trainers: What do they do? AVETRA Conference Papers: 1-8.
  80. Sims R.R. and Sims S.J. (1991). Improving Training in the Public Sector. Public Personnel Management, 20(1): 71-82.
  81. Streumer J. (2006). Work-related learning. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.
  82. Swanson R.A. and Falkman S.K. (1997). Training delivery problems and solutions: Identification of novice trainer problems and expert trainer solutions. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 8(4): 305-314.
  83. Tahernezhad K., Sadaghiani J.S. and Ghaiyoomi A. (2013). A study on relationship between organizational structure and learning characteristics: A case study of revenue agency. Management Science Letters 3: 991-994, DOI: 10.5267/j.msl.2013.01.017
  84. Tannenbaum S. (2002). A Strategic View of Organizational Training and Learning. In: Kraiger K., ed., Creating Implementing, and Managing Effective Training and Development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass: 10-52.
  85. Tchaban A. (1999). Towards more flexibility in training. Employment and Traning Papers, 56: Geneva: International Labour Office.
  86. Tynjälä P. (2008). Perspectives into learning at the workplace. Educational Research Review, 3: 130-154., DOI: 10.1016/j.edurev.2007.12.001
  87. Van den Bossche P., Segers M. and Jansen N. (2010). Transfer of training: the role of feedback in supportive social networks. International Journal of Training and Development 14(2): 81-94., DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2419.2010.00343.x
  88. Van der Krogt F.J. (1998). Learning Network Theory: The Tension between Learning Systems and Work Systems in Organizations (1998). Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9(2): 157-177., DOI: 10.1002/hrdq.3920090207
  89. Vorhaus J. (2010). Learning Styles in Vocational Education and Training. International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition): 376-382., DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-044894-7.00785-5
  90. Vygotsky L.S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
  91. Walton J. (1999), Strategic Human Resource Development. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.
  92. Weick K. (1979). Cognitive processes in Organizations. In: Cummings L.L. and Staw B.M. (eds). Research in Organizational Behaviour, vol. 1, Greenwich: Jay Press.
  93. Wenger E. (2000). Communities of Practice and Social learning System. Organization, 7(2): 225-246., DOI: 10.1177/135050840072002
  94. Williamson O.E. (1980). The Organizations Work. Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organizations, 1 (trad. it.: Strutture alternative di organizzazione del lavoro ed efficienza economica. In: Nacamulli R.C.D. e Rugiadini A., Organizzazione e Mercato. Bologna: il Mulino, 1985).
  95. Wright L. (2003). Training in Its Organizational Context: Sharing Responsibility Performance Improvement Quarterly, 16(4): 5-22., DOI: 10.1111/j.1937-8327.2003.tb00291.x.WrightP.M.,McMahanG.C.andMcWilliamsA.(1994).HumanResourceandSubstainedCompetitiveAdvantage:AResource-BasedPerspective.InternationalJournalofHumanResourceManagement,5(2):301-326.doi:10.1080/09585199400000020
  96. World Bank (2012). Job. Washington (DC). Testo disponibile al sito:
  97. Yin R.K. (2006). Case study methods. In: Green J.L., Camilli G. and Elmore P.B., eds., Handbook of complementary methods in education research. Mahwah (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 111-122.
  98. Zan S. (2011). Le organizzazioni complesse. Roma: Carocci.

Raimondo Ingrassia, Doing internal training: the Italian Revenue Agency experience in "RIVISTA TRIMESTRALE DI SCIENZA DELL’AMMINISTRAZIONE" 2/2015, pp. 55-82, DOI:10.3280/SA2015-002004


FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content