At the turn of the nineteenth century a widespread but fragmentary movement of opinion, alert to themes of beauty and landscape, arose in Italy, giving birth to numerous associations. Among the most interesting experiences was the federation Pro Montibus, born in 1898 at Turin but which the following year fathered a Bolognese section whose activity up to the great World War is examined here. In Bolognese territory Pro Montibus and Sylvis became the focus of an activity which combined private and public energies, local and state powers in order to confront a formerly underrated problem: the neglect and consequent ruin of the mountain and hill land of the province. The model adopted could seem to a certain degree exportable to other national areas also in need of intervention. This did not happen ; but the Bolognese experience, thanks to the concrete initiatives undertaken, gave prominence to a woodland and mountain theme in Italy, to the creation of a journal on forestry of national circulation, and to the congress organized in 1909.
Keywords: Pro montibus, Bologna, Territory, Mountains, Italy, "giolittian" age.