Click here to download

Fattori organizzativi e processi di condivisione della conoscenza nelle strutture turistiche complesse. Il caso Villa Medicea "La Ferdinanda" di Artimino
Journal Title: STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI  
Author/s: Sara Lombardi, Vincenzo Cavaliere 
Year:  2015 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  35 Pg. 39-73 FullText PDF:  305 KB
DOI:  10.3280/SO2015-002002
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


Over the last decades, organization studies have been inspired by the knowledge-based view, which points to the importance of knowledge assets for firms’ competitiveness. At the core of this stream is the awareness that knowledge should flow across the whole organization. Given that ideas and know-how are rooted in individuals’ minds, for such knowledge to be valuable, it is fundamental to share and use it. Therefore, it becomes vital to understand the antecedents to knowledge sharing and utilization behaviours. This paper focuses on the role of individual, micro and macroorganizational factors in affecting employees’ knowledge utilization. Specifically, it centres on individual motivation, job formalization and operating procedures, and organizational culture and tests the related hypotheses in a complex tourism organization. The results of a regression analysis demonstrate that people motivated by reputation enhancement are less likely to engage in using the shared knowledge. However, such negative relationship is mitigated by a community organizational culture, which emphasizes social cohesion, teamwork, and commitment. Finally, the data show that while formalization is positively associated with knowledge utilization behaviours, operating procedures tend to inhibit them. Accordingly, this study suggests practical implications managers can rely on when designing their strategies for fostering employees’ participation and involvement in knowledge exploitation processes.
Keywords: knowledge sharing, motivation, community culture, formalization, operating procedures, tourism management

  1. Argote, L., Ingram, P. (2000), “Knowledge Transfer: A Basis for Competitive Advantage in Firms”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82(1): 150-169., DOI: 10.1006/obhd.2000.2893
  2. Armano, E. (2011), “I Lavoratori della Conoscenza tra Informalità e Ambivalenza dei Network”, Studi Organizzativi, 2: 77-102., DOI: 10.3280/SO2011-002004
  3. Aulawi, H., Sudirman, I., Suryadi, K., Govindaraju, R. (2009), “Knowledge Sharing Behavior, Antecedents and Their Impact on the Individual Innovation Capability”, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 5(12): 2238-2246.
  4. Barney, J. (1991), “Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage”, Journal of Management, 17(1): 99-120., DOI: 10.1177/014920639101700108
  5. Bartol, K.M., Srivastava, A. (2002), “Encouraging Knowledge Sharing: The Role of Organizational Reward Systems”, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(1): 64-76., DOI: 10.1177/107179190200900105
  6. Belsey, D.A., Kuh, E., Welsch, R.E. (1980), Regression Diagnostics: Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity, New York, John Wiley & Sons.
  7. Bock, G.W., Zmud, R.W., Kim, Y.G., Lee, J.N. (2005), “Behavioral Intention Formation in Knowledge Sharing: Examining the Roles of Extrinsic Motivators, Social-Psychological Forces, and Organizational Climate”, MIS Quarterly, 29: 87-111.
  8. Bowen, H.P., Wiersema, M.F. (1999), “Matching Method to Paradigm in Strategy Research: Limitations of Cross-Sectional Analysis and Some Methodological Alternatives”, Strategic Management Journal, 20(7): 625-636., DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199907)20:7<625::AID-SMJ45>3.0.CO;2-V
  9. Butera, F., Di Guardo, S. (2009), “Analisi e Progettazione del Lavoro della Conoscenza: Il Modello della Fondazione Irso e Due Casi”, Studi Organizzativi, 2: 199-224., DOI: 10.3280/SO2009-002010
  10. Cabrera, Á., Collins, W.C., Salgado, J. (2006), “Determinants of Individual Engagement in Knowledge Sharing”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17: 245-264:, DOI: 10.1080/09585190500404614
  11. Campbell, J.P., Freeman, S.J. (1991), “Cultural Congruence, Strength and Type: Relationships to Effectiveness”, in Woodman, R.W., Passmore, W.A. (Eds.), Research in Organizational Change and Development, Vol. 5, Greenwich, CT, JAI Press.
  12. Cavaliere, V. (2013), Conoscenza, cultura organizzativa e comportamenti innovativi delle risorse umane. Prime evidenze empiriche dalle medie e grandi imprese del manufatturiero toscano, Milano, Egea.
  13. Černe, M., Nerstad, C.G., Dysvik, A., Škerlavaj, M. (2014), “What Goes Around Comes Around: Knowledge Hiding, Perceived Motivational Climate, and Creativity”, Academy of Management Journal, 57(1): 172-192., DOI: 10.5465/amj.2012.0122
  14. Christensen, P.H. (2007), “Knowledge Sharing: Moving away from the Obsession with Best Practices”, Journal of Knowledge Management, 11(1): 36-47., DOI: 10.1108/13673270710728222
  15. Churchill, G.A. (1991), Marketing Research: Methodological Foundations, Fort Worth (TX), The Dryden Press.
  16. Cohen, D. (1998), “Toward a Knowledge Context: Report on the First Annual UC Berkeley Forum on Knowledge and the Firm”, California Management Review, 40(3): 22-39.
  17. Cohen, W.M., Levinthal, D.A. (1990), “Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1): 128-152., DOI: 10.2307/2393553
  18. Connelly, C.E., Kelloway, E.K. (2003), “Predictors of Employees’ Perceptions of Knowledge Sharing Cultures”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(5): 294-301., DOI: 10.1108/01437730310485815
  19. Constant, D., Kiesler, S., Sproull, L. (1994), “What’s Mine Is Ours, or Is It? A Study of Attitudes about Information Sharing”, Information Systems Research, 5(4): 400-421.
  20. Corbetta, P., Gasperoni, G., Pisati, M. (2001), Statistica per la ricerca sociale, Bologna, il Mulino.
  21. Cummings, J.N. (2004), “Work Groups, Structural Diversity, and Knowledge Sharing in a Global Organization”, Management Science, 50(3): 352-364,, DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.1030.0134
  22. Davenport, T.H., Prusak, L. (1998), Working Knowledge: How Organizations Manage What They Know, Cambridge, MA, Harvard Business Press.
  23. Deci, E.L., Ryan, R.M. (1985), “The General Causality Orientations Scale: Self-Determination in Personality”, Journal of Research in Personality, 19(2): 109-134., DOI: 10.1016/0092-6566(85)90023-6.
  24. Denison, D.R., Mishra, A.K. (1995), “Toward a Theory of Organizational Culture and Effectiveness”, Organization Science, 6(2): 204-223., DOI: 10.1287/orsc.6.2.204.
  25. Deshpandé, R., Farley, J.U., Webster, Jr. F.E. (1993), “Corporate Culture, Customer Orientation, and Innovativeness in Japanese Firms: A Quadrad Analysis”, Journal of Marketing, 57(1): 23-37., DOI: 10.2307/1252055
  26. Du, R., Ai, S., Ren, Y. (2007), “Relationship Between Knowledge Sharing and Performance: A Survey in Xi’an, China”, Expert Systems with Applications, 32(1): 38-46., DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2005.11.001.
  27. Elsbach, K.D., Hargadon, A.B. (2006), “Enhancing Creativity Through “Mindless” Work: A Framework of Workday Design”, Organization Science, 17(4): 470-483., DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1060.0193
  28. Foss, N.J., Husted, K., Michailova, S. (2010), “Governing Knowledge Sharing In Organizations: Levels of Analysis, Governance Mechanisms, and Research Directions”, Journal of Management Studies, 47(3): 455-482., DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2009.00870.x.
  29. Foss, N.J., Minbaeva, D.B., Pedersen, T., Reinholt, M. (2009), “Encouraging Knowledge Sharing Among Employees: How Job Design Matters”, Human Resource Management, 48(6): 871-893., DOI: 10.1002/hrm.20320.
  30. Gagné, M., Deci, E.L. (2005), “Self‐Determination Theory and Work Motivation”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4): 331-362., DOI: 10.1002/job.322.
  31. Gagné, M., Forest, J., Gilbert, M.-H., Aubé, C., Morin, E., Malorni, A. (2010), “The Motivation at Work Scale: Validation Evidence in Two Languages”, Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70(4): 628-646., DOI: 10.1177/0013164409355698.
  32. Gherardi, S. (2003), “Il Sogno e il Disincanto del Knowledge Management”, Studi Organizzativi, 1: 5-20.
  33. Goh, S.C. (2002), “Managing Effective Knowledge Transfer: An Integrative Framework and Some Practice Implications”, Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1): 23-30., DOI: 10.1108/13673270210417664
  34. Grandi, A., Tagliaventi, M.R. (2003), “Organizzazione della Ricerca e Gestione della Conoscenza”, Studi Organizzativi, 3: 7-28.
  35. Grant, A.M., Parker, S.K. (2009), “Redesigning Work Design Theories: The Rise of Relational and Proactive Perspectives”, Academy of Management Annals, 3(1): 317-375., DOI: 10.1080/19416520903047327.
  36. Grant, R.M. (1996), “Toward a Knowledge-Based Theory of the Firm”, Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2): 109-122., DOI: 10.1002/smj.4250171110
  37. Guns, W.D., Välikangas, L. (1998), “Rethinking Knowledge Work: Creating Value Through Idiosyncratic Knowledge”, Journal of Knowledge Management, 1(4): 287-293., DOI: 10.1108/EUM0000000004600
  38. Hackman, J.R., Oldham, G.R. (1980), Work Redesign, Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley.
  39. Hage, J., Aiken, M. (1967), “Program Change and Organizational Properties A Comparative Analysis”, American Journal of Sociology, 72(5): 503-519.
  40. Heskett, J.L. (1986), Managing in the Service Economy, Boston, MA, Harvard Business Press.
  41. Hlupic, V., Pouloudi, A., Rzevski, G. (2002), “Towards an Integrated Approach to Knowledge Management: ‘Hard’, ‘Soft’ and ‘Abstract’ Issues”, Knowledge and Process Management, 9(2): 90-102., DOI: 10.1002/kpm.134
  42. Hofstede, G. (1991), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, New York, McGraw-Hill.
  43. Hooijberg, R., Petrock, F. (1993), “On Cultural Change: Using the Competing Values Framework to Help Leaders Execute a Transformational Strategy”, Human Resource Management, 32(1): 29-50., DOI: 10.1002/hrm.3930320103
  44. Howard, G. (1994), “Why Do People Say Nasty Things About Self-Reports?”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15: 399-404., DOI: 10.1002/job.4030150505
  45. Hu, M.-L.M., Horng, J.-S., Sun, Y.-H.C. (2009), “Hospitality Teams: Knowledge Sharing and Service Innovation Performance”, Tourism Management, 30(1): 41-50., DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2008.04.009.
  46. Kogut, B., Zander, U. (1992), “Knowledge of the Firm, Combinative Capabilities, and the Replication of Technology”, Organization Science, 3(3): 383-397., DOI: 10.1287/orsc.3.3.383
  47. Lawrence, P.R., Lorsch, J.W. (1967), “Differentiation and Integration in Complex Organizations”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 12(1): 1-47.
  48. Levin, D.Z., Cross, R. (2004), “The Strength of Weak Ties You Can Trust: The Mediating Role of Trust in Effective Knowledge Transfer”, Management Science, 50: 1477-1490., DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.1030.0136
  49. Lin, H.-F. (2007), “Knowledge Sharing and Firm Innovation Capability: An Empirical Study”, International Journal of Manpower, 28(3/4): 315-332., DOI: 10.1108/01437720710755272
  50. Lin, I.-F., Schaeffer, N.C. (1995), “Using Survey Participants to Estimate the Impact of Nonparticipation”, Public Opinion Quarterly, 59(2): 236-258., DOI: 10.1086/269471
  51. Lippman, S.A., Rumelt, R.P. (1982), “Uncertain imitability: An Analysis of Interfirm Differences in Efficiency Under Competition”, The Bell Journal of Economics, 13(2): 418-438.
  52. Mintzberg, H. (1996), “Managing Government, Governing Management”, Harvard Business Review, May-June: 75-83.
  53. Morgeson, F.P., Humphrey, S.E. (2008), “Job and Team Design: Toward a More Integrative Conceptualization of Work Design”, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 27: 39-91.
  54. Nonaka, I. (1994), “A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation”, Organization Science, 5(1): 14-37., DOI: 10.1287/orsc.5.1.14
  55. Nunnally, J.C. (1978), Psychometric Theory, New York, McGraw-Hill.
  56. Ogbonna, E., Harris, L.C. (2000), “Leadership Style, Organizational Culture and Performance: Empirical Evidence From UK Companies”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(4): 766-788., DOI: 10.1080/09585190050075114.
  57. Organ, D.W. (1988), Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome, Lexington, MA, Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com.
  58. Osterloh, M., Frey, B.S. (2000), “Motivation, Knowledge Transfer, and Organizational Forms”, Organization Science, 11: 538-550., DOI: 10.1287/orsc.11.5.538.15204
  59. Parker, S.K.K.K., Wall, T.D. (1998), Job and Work Design: Organizing Work to Promote Well-Being and Effectiveness, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.
  60. Pérez-Lopez, S., Montes Peón, J.M., Vázquez Ordás, C.J. (2004), “Managing in Knowledge: The Link between Culture and Organizational Learning”, Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(6): 93-104., DOI: 10.1108/13673270410567657
  61. Pettigrew, A.M. (1979), “On Studying Organizational Cultures”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 24(4): 570-581.
  62. Pierce, J.L., Delbecq, A.L. (1977), “Organization Structure, Individual Attitudes and Innovation”, Academy of Management Review, 2(1): 27-37., DOI: 10.5465/AMR.1977.4409154
  63. Polanyi, M. (1966), The Tacit Dimension, New York, Doubleday & Company.
  64. Quinn, R.E. (1988), Beyond Rational Management, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
  65. Reinholt, M.I.A., Pedersen, T., Foss, N.J. (2011), “Why a Central Network Position Isn’t Enough: The Role of Motivation and Ability for Knowledge Sharing in Employee Networks”, Academy of Management Journal, 54(6): 1277-1297., DOI: 10.5465/amj.2009.0007
  66. Rullani, E. (2004), Economia della conoscenza, Roma, Carocci.
  67. Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L. (2000), “Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being”, American Psychologist, 55(1): 68., DOI: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68.
  68. Schein, E.H. (1984), “Coming to a New Awareness of Organizational Culture”, Sloan Management Review, 25(2): 3-16.
  69. Sharma, S. (1996), Applied multivariate techniques, New York, John Wiley and Sons.
  70. Siehl, C., Martin, J. (1984), “The Role of Symbolic Management: How Can Managers Effectively Transmit Organizational Culture”, in Hunt, J.G., Hosking, D.M., Schriesheim, G.A., Stewart, R. (Eds.), Leaders and Managers: International Perspectives on Managerial Behavior and Leadership, (pp. 227-239), Elmsford, NY, Pergamon.
  71. Siggelkow, N. (2007), “Persuasion with Case Studies”, Academy of Management Journal, 50(1): 20-24., DOI: 10.5465/AMJ.2007.24160882.
  72. Sine, W.D., Mitsuhashi, H., Kirsch, D.A. (2006), “Revisiting Burns and Stalker: Formal Structure and New Venture Performance in Emerging Economic Sectors”, Academy of Management Journal, 49(1): 121-132., DOI: 10.5465/AMJ.2006.20785590.
  73. Spector, P.E. (1994), “Using Self‐Report Questionnaires in OB Research: A Comment on the Use of a Controversial Method”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(5): 385-392., DOI: 10.1002/job.4030150503.
  74. Srivastava, A., Bartol, K.M., Locke, E.A. (2006), “Empowering Leadership in Management Teams: Effects on Knowledge Sharing, Efficacy, and Performance”, Academy of Management Journal, 49(6): 1239-1251., DOI: 10.5465/AMJ.2006.23478718
  75. Syed-Ikhsan, S.O.S., Rowland, F. (2004), “Knowledge Management in a Public Organization: A Study on the Relationship Between Organizational Elements and the Performance of Knowledge Transfer”, Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(2): 95-111., DOI: 10.1108/13673270410529145.
  76. Szulanski, G. (1996), “Exploiting Internal Stickiness: Impediments to the Transfer of Best Practice”, Strategic Management Journal, 17: 27-43.
  77. Thompson, J. (1967), Organizations in Action: Social Science Bases of Administrative Theory, New York, McGraw-Hill.
  78. Tsai, W. (2001), “Knowledge Transfer in Intraorganizational Networks: Effects of Network Position and Absorptive Capacity on Business Unit Innovation and Performance”, Academy of Management Journal, 44(5): 996-1004., DOI: 10.2307/3069443.
  79. Tsai, W., Ghoshal, S. (1998), “Social Capital and Value Creation: The Role of Intrafirm Networks”, Academy of Management Journal, 41(4): 464-476., DOI: 10.2307/257085.
  80. Van den Hooff, B., de Leeuw van Weenen, F. (2004), “Committed to Share: Commitment and CMC Use as Antecedents of Knowledge Sharing”, Knowledge and Process Management, 11(1): 13-24., DOI: 10.1002/kpm.187
  81. Van den Hooff, B., de Ridder, J.A. (2004), “Knowledge Sharing in Context: The Influence of Organizational Commitment, Communication Climate and CMC Use on Knowledge Sharing”, Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(6): 117-130., DOI: 10.1108/13673270410567675
  82. Wasko, M.M., Faraj, S. (2005), “Why Should I Share? Examining Social Capital and Knowledge Contribution in Electronic Networks of Practice”, MIS Quarterly, 29(1): 35-57.
  83. Yang, J.-T. (2004), “Qualitative Knowledge Capturing and Organizational Learning: Two Case Studies in Taiwan Hotels”, Tourism Management, 25(4): 421-428., DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(03)00114-6.
  84. Yang, J. T. (2008), “Individual Attitudes and Organisational Knowledge Sharing”, Tourism Management, 29(2): 345-353., DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2007.03.001
  85. Agresti, A., Finlay, B. (1997), Statistical methods for the social sciences (3rd Ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ, Pearson Education.
  86. Alavi, M., Leidner, D.E. (2001), “Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems: Conceptual Foundations and Research Issues”, MIS quarterly, 25(1): 107-136., DOI: 10.2307/3250961

Sara Lombardi, Vincenzo Cavaliere, in "STUDI ORGANIZZATIVI " 2/2015, pp. 39-73, DOI:10.3280/SO2015-002002

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content