The management of natural resources in the past has been linked for a long time to collective forms of appropriation, both in practices and in the vindication of rights. These forms were then almost completely erased by the nineteenth and twentieth centuries reforms, which affected the property rights, the local political power and economic, technical and "environmental" management of the same resources. The theme of the commons has been subject since the nineties of the twentieth century of an intense historical debate, which was dominated by neo-institutional approach, but which opened alternative analysis strategies, often linked to a local and analytical approach. I will refer to this debate, and I will illustrate two specific case studies in which the category of "collective characterizes historical processes of definition of the relationship between local communities and resources, between discontinuity and resilience, to demonstrate that common resources are the basis of many of our historical rural landscapes.
Keywords: Collective Actions, Rural Landscapes, Environmental History, Microhistory, History of the Commons
Jel Code: N50, 013, Q28