Epidemiological studies have shown that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is about four times more prevalent among males than in females. Such prevalence estimate has prompted the hypothesis that the gap between males and females might rely not only on biological factors but also on a gender-biased model of disease, meaning that ASD knowledge and diagnostic tools might be tailored on a male model of ASD. Furthermore, if several female cases of ASD are not recognised, they are likely diagnosed with other mental conditions while seeking for support and treatment. The present work is aimed to look beyond biological determinants of the differences between males and females on the autistic spectrum, accounting for the male stereotype of ASD and for the mis-diagnosis that may follow among females.
Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder; gender; prevalence; diagnosis; eating disorders; Borderline Personality Disorder.