This conceptual analysis calls for deeper critical reflection on the goals and conditions of interdisciplinarity. The "surplus of knowledge" expected from interdisciplinarity should be interpreted as the production of new ways of thinking, leaving recognizable traces in the involved disciplines. Particular conditions for success should be taken into account when planning and evaluating interdisciplinary endeavours: an object, a goal, regular shared practices, and the researchers’ capacities for believing in and sticking to specific attitudes. The highest goal of interdisciplinarity - the transformation of society and culture - is related to the meaning and effects of research, and to science’s placement in contemporary society.
Keywords: Education, Interdisciplinarity, Pedagogy, Philosophy of science, Research, Social organization of knowledge.