Clicca qui per scaricare

Stress, burnout e insoddisfazione dei medici: un campo di indagine aperto
Titolo Rivista: PRISMA Economia - Società - Lavoro 
Autori/Curatori:  Giovanna Vicarelli 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2016 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  12 P. 9-20 Dimensione file:  166 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PRI2016-001002
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 

Despite the triumph of medicine, as concerns the cures and the well-being ensured to the population, the dissatisfaction of both actors of the therapeutic relationship has grown over the past decades. Both patients and doctors seem to be disoriented in front of the great challenges that are taking place. The rapid change we are now witnessing seems to create a situation of anomie (which is reflected on the experience of health care workers) that is difficult to manage in a period of economic and political crisis as well as of great discoveries in science and technology. The paper focuses on the unease of doctors: starting from the analysis of the international literature it will try to identify some possible streams of research on a phenomenon that still appears insufficiently examined in Italy, despite the wide concern both at the individual level and at the collective one.

  1. Aasland O.G., (2015) “Healthy Doctors – Sick Medicine”, Professions & Professionalism, vol. 5, n. 1, pp. 1-14
  2. ANAAO-ASSOMED, (2014) La programmazione del fabbisogno di personale medico nel decennio 2014-2023: curve di pensionamento, fabbisogni specialistici e numero chiuso per l’accesso alle scuole di Medicina e Chirurgia. -- Reperibile al sito:
  3. Audet A. M. et al., (2005) “Measure, learn, and improve: Physicians’ involvement in quality improvement”, Health Affairs, vol. 24 n. 3, pp. 843-853
  4. Bronzini M., (2016) “Relazioni di cura e modelli di attivazione”, in G. Vicarelli (a cura di), Oltre il coinvolgimento. L’attivazione del cittadino nelle nuove configurazioni di benessere, il Mulino, Bologna, pp. 141-166
  5. Buddeberg-Fischer B. et al., (2010) “Chronic stress experience in young physicians: impact of person-and workplace-related factors”, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 83, pp. 373-379
  6. Causer G., Exworthy M., (1998) “Professionals as managers across the public sector”, in M. Exworthy, S. Halford (a cura di), Professionals and Managers in the Public Sector, Open University Press, Buckingham , pp. 83-101
  7. CIMO, (2013) Indagine riguardo le aspettative, le risorse e le reali possibilità che offre oggi la professione medica. -- Reperibile al sito:
  8. Cosmacini G., (2013) La scomparsa del dottore. Storia e cronaca di una estinzione, Raffaele Cortina Editore, Milano
  9. Crosson F.J., Casalino L.P., (2015) “Physician Dissatisfaction in the United States: An Examination”, Professions & Professionalism, vol. 5, n. 1, pp. 1-14
  10. Elias N., (2010) Marinaio e gentiluomo: la genesi della professione navale, il Mulino, Bologna
  11. Evetts J., (2011) “A New Professionalism? Challenges and Opportunities”, Current Sociology, vol. 59, n. 4, pp. 406-422
  12. Filc D., (2006) “Physicians as ‘Organic Intellectuals’ A Contribution to the Stratification versus Deprofessionalization Debate”, Acta Sociologica, vol. 49, n. 3, pp. 273-285
  13. Friedberg M.W., (2012) “The potential impact of the medical home on job satisfaction in primary care”, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 172, n. 1, pp. 31-32
  14. Freidson E., (2001) Professionalism, the Third Logic, Polity Press, Cambridge
  15. Gabel S., (2012) “Demoralization: A precursor to physician burnout?”, American Family Physician, vol. 86, n. 9, pp. 861-862
  16. Gautam M., (2001) “Women in medicine: stresses and solutions”, The Western journal of medicine, vol. 174, gennaio, pp. 37-41
  17. Giarelli G., (2003) Il malessere della medicina, FrancoAngeli, Milano
  18. Gleichgerrcht E., Decety J., (2013) “Empathy in clinical practice: How individual dispositions, gender, and experience moderate empathic concern, burnout, and emotional distress in physicians”, PLoS One, vol. 8, n. 4, pp. E61526
  19. Haug M.R., (1972) “Deprofessionalization: An alternate hypothesis for the future”, The Sociological Review Monograph, vol. 20, n. 1s, May, pp. 195-211
  20. Hertzberg T.K. et al., (2016) “Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career”, Industrial Health, vol. 54, n. 2, pp. 139-148
  21. Houkes I. et al., (2011) “Development of burnout over time and the causal order of the three dimensions of burnout among male and female GPs. A three-wave panel study”, BMC Public Health, n. 11, pp. 240
  22. Kjeldmand D., Holmstrøm I., (2008) “Balint groups as a means to increase job satisfaction and prevent burnout among general practitioners”, Annals of Family Medicine, vol. 6, n. 2, pp. 138-145
  23. Konrad T.R., (2015) “Measures, Methods, and Models of Doctor Satisfaction: Future Research Challenges”, Professions & Professionalism, vol. 5, n. 1, pp. 1-14
  24. Light D.W., (2015) “Alienation and Stress among Doctors: Dilemmas and Possible Solutions”, Professions & Professionalism, vol. 5, n. 1, pp. 1-8
  25. Langballe E.M. et al., (2011) “The Predictive Value of Individual Factors, Work-Related Factors, and Work-Home Interaction on Burnout in Female and Male Physicians: A Longitudinal Study”, Stress and Health, vol. 27, pp. 73-87
  26. Levay C., Waks C., (2009) “Professions and the Pursuit of Transparency in Healthcare”, Organization Studies, vol. 30, n. 5, May, pp. 509-527
  27. Løvseth L.T. et al., (2013) “Associations between Confidentiality Requirements, Support Seeking and Burnout among University Hospital Physicians in Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Italy (the HOUPE study)”, Stress and Health, vol. 29, pp. 432-437
  28. Malatesta M., (2006) Professionisti e gentiluomini. Storia delle professioni nell’Europa contemporanea, Einaudi, Torino
  29. Martinussen P.E., Magnussen J., (2011) “Resisting market-inspired reform in healthcare: The role of professional subcultures in medicine”, Social Science & Medicine, vol. 73, n. 2 July, pp. 193-200
  30. Maslach C., Jackson S.E., (2013) “Burnout in the health professions: A social psychological analysis”, in G.S. Sanders, e J. Suls (a cura di), The Social Psychology of Health and Illness, Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 222-254
  31. McKinlay J.B., Marceau L.D. (2011) “New wine in an old bottle: Does alienation provide an explanation of the origins of physician discontent?”, International Journal of Health Services, vol. 41, n. 2, pp. 301-335
  32. McKinley J., Stoekle J., (1988) “Corporatization and the Social Transformation of Doctoring”, International Journal of Health Services, vol. 18, n. 2 April, pp. 191-205
  33. Muzio D., Kirkpatrick I. e Kipping M., (2011) “Professions, Organizations and the State: Applying the Sociology of the Professions to the Case of Management Consultancy”, Current Sociology, vol. 59, n. 6, November, pp. 805-824
  34. Noordegraaf M., (2011) “Remaking Professionals? How Associations and Professional Education Connect Professionalism and Organizations”, Current Sociology, vol. 59, n. 4 July, pp. 465-488
  35. Noordegraaf M., (2007) “From “Pure” to “Hybrid” Professionalism: Present-day Professionalism in Ambiguous Public Domain”, Administration and Society, vol. 39 n. 6 October, pp. 761-785
  36. Parker M., Dent M., (1996) “Managers, doctors and culture: changing an English health district”, Administration & Society, vol. 28, n.3 November, pp. 335-61
  37. Pavolini E., Vicarelli G., (2013) “Una danza generativa : lo studio della sanità in Italia fra management, professioni e politica”, in RPS (a cura di), Classe dirigente pubblica, Ediesse, Roma, pp. 187-209
  38. Pavolini E., Guillén A.M. (eds), (2013) Health Care Systems in Europe under Austerity: Institutional Reforms and Performance, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke
  39. Prins J.T. et al., (2010) “Burnout and engagement among resident doctors in the Netherlands: a national study”, Medical Education, vol. 44, pp. 236-247.
  40. Ritzer G., Walczak D., (1988) “Rationalisation and the deprofessionalisation of physicians”, Social Forces, vol. 67, n. 1 September, pp. 1-22
  41. Robinson G. E., (2003) Stresses on women physicians: consequences and coping techniques, Depression and Anxiety , vol. 17, n. 3, pp. 180-189
  42. Rovik J.O. et al., (2007) “Job stress in young physicians with an emphasis on the work home interface: A nine year, nationwide and longitudinal study of its course and predictors”, Industrial Health, vol. 45, pp. 662-671
  43. Shanafelt T. D. et al., (2012) “Burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance among US physicians relative to the general US population”, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 172, n. 18, pp. 1377-1385
  44. Shanafelt T. D. et al., (2003) “The Well-Being of Physicians”, The American Journal Of Medicine, vol. 114, April 15, pp. 513-519
  45. Spina E., Vicarelli G. (2015) “Are Young Female Doctors Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling in Italy?”, Cambio, n. 9, pp. 121-134
  46. Toth F., (2015) “Sovereigns under Siege. How the Medical Profession Is Changing in Italy”, Social Science & Medicine, vol. 136-137, pp. 128-134
  47. Vicarelli G., (2016a) “Les médecins italiens à l’épreuve du management: régulation, nègociation et négation”, in G. Ferreol (sous la dir. de), Mèdiations et Régulations, Louvain-la Neuve, EME èditions, pp. 223-236
  48. Vicarelli G. (a cura di), (2016b) Oltre il coinvolgimento. L’attivazione del cittadino nelle nuove configurazioni di benessere, il Mulino, Bologna
  49. Vicarelli G., (2010a) Medici in Italia. La professione medica dall’unità al duemila, Carocci, Roma
  50. Vicarelli G., (2010b) “Per un’analisi storico-comparata della professione medica”, Stato e Mercato, n. 90, pp. 395-424
  51. Vicarelli G., (2008) Donne di medicina. Il percorso professionale delle donne medico in Italia, il Mulino, Bologna
  52. Tousijn W., (2000) Il sistema delle occupazioni sanitarie, il Mulino, Bologna
  53. Wallace J. E., Lemaire J., (2007) “On physician well being – you’ll get by with a little help from your friends”, Social Science & Medicine, vol. 64, n. 12, pp. 2565-2577
  54. Wallace J.E., Lemaire J., (2006) “The generation and gender shifts in medicine: an exploratory survey of internal medicine physicians”, BMC Health Service Research, n. 6, pp. 55-71
  55. Walsh J., (2013) “Gender, the Work-Life Interface and Wellbeing: A Study of Hospital Doctors in Gender”, Work and Organization, vol. 20 n. 4 July, pp. 439-453
  56. Warde C., Allen W. and Gelberg L., (1996) “Physician role conflict and resulting career changes”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 11, n. 12, pp. 729-735
  57. Weinstein L., (2007) “The Downward Spiral of Physician. Satisfaction An Attempt to Avert a Crisis Within the Medical Profession”, Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 109, n. 5, pp. 1181-3
  58. Zwack J., Schweitzer J., (2013) “If every fifth physician is affected by burnout, what about the other four? resilience strategies of experienced physicians”, Academic Medicine, vol. 88, n. 3, pp. 382-389

Giovanna Vicarelli, in "PRISMA Economia - Società - Lavoro" 1/2016, pp. 9-20, DOI:10.3280/PRI2016-001002


FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche