Click here to download

Climate policy in the new US Administration
Journal Title: ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 
Author/s: Jonathan B. Wiener 
Year:  2016 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  17 Pg. 45-61 FullText PDF:  202 KB
DOI:  10.3280/EFE2016-003004
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


During the 2016 presidential campaign, Donald Trump promised to "cancel" the Paris Agreement. On 1 June 2017, he announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement. More generally, the new Trump administration has been vocal about changing US climate and environmental policies. This paper reviews these proposed changes, potential obstacles, and possible future paths. These include US membership in the Paris Agreement, the US NDC submitted to the Paris Agreement, and US domestic policies such as the EPA "Clean Power Plan" and other agency rules. So far, the Trump administration has taken some steps, but it has not made final policy changes. Its attempts at policy changes will take time, perhaps several years to withdraw from Paris and to conduct new agency rulemakings. They may be challenged by others, such as in other countries, in Congress, in the States, and in court. Litigation could seek to require agencies to justify their policy changes, to carry out statutory responsibilities, to use a social cost of carbon, and to protect the public trust. The effects of potential policy changes on the economy, emissions, and international relations remain to be seen. Beyond policy changes that may be made by the Trump administration, EPA and other agencies, another path may be through new legislative action in Congress. One avenue to seek bipartisan support for legislation in Congress might be a deal to remove EPA regulatory authority over greenhouse gases while also simultaneously adopting a new carbon tax. Climate policy is not determined by a single decision maker, but evolves in a complex web of institutions, with moves and countermoves by multiple actors
Keywords: Climate change, international climate negotiations, Paris Agreement.
Jel Code: F55, K32, Q54

  1. Adler J. (2016). Supreme Court puts the brakes on the EPA’s Clean Power Plan. Washington Post blog (February 9), at -- https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/volokh-conspiracy/wp/2016/02/09/supreme-court-puts-the-brakes-on-the-epas-clean-power-plan/?utm_term=.f9535774b478.
  2. Atani M. (2016). The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol: Another Global Commitment to Stop Climate Change. UNEP (December), --at http://www.unep.org/africa/news/kigali-amendment-montreal-protocol-another-global-commitment-stop-climate-change.
  3. Biermann F., Pattberg P., Van Asselt H. and Zelli F. (2009). The fragmentation of global governance architectures: A framework for analysis. Global Environmental Politics, 9: 14-40.
  4. Biniaz S. (2017). Act Locally, Reflect Globally. Sabin Center, Columbia Law School (May), --at http://columbiaclimatelaw.com/files/2017/05/Biniaz-May_2017-Act-Locally-Reflect-Globally-.pdf.
  5. Bookbinder D. (2017). Examining the Legal Implications of the Paris Agreement. Niskanen Center (25 May 2017), --at https://niskanencenter.org/blog/examining-legal-implications-paris-agreement/ (visited 5 June 2017).
  6. Bradley C.A. (2014). Treaty Termination and Historical Gloss. Texas Law Review, 92: 773-835.
  7. Brandt J. (2017), Trump and the environment: Taking stock of regulatory developments in the new administration. Blog post, Rethinking Regulation at the Kenan Institute for Ethics at Duke University, --at http://kenan.ethics.duke.edu/regulation/blog/trump-and-the-environment-taking-stock-of-regulatory-developments-in-the-new-administration/ (visited 23 May 2017).
  8. Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (2017), Legal Issues Related to the Paris Agreement, --at https://www.c2es.org/docUploads/legal-issues-related-paris-agreement-05-17.pdf (visited 1 June 2017) (prepared with contributions from Susan Biniaz, former US State Department Deputy Legal Adviser, and Daniel Bodansky, Foundation Professor Law, Arizona State University).
  9. Coglianese C. and D’Ambrosio J. (2008). Policymaking under Pressure: The Perils of Incremental Responses to Climate Change. Connecticut Law Review, 40: 1411-1430.
  10. Eilperin J. and Harvey C. (2017). Senate unexpectedly rejects bid to repeal a key Obama-era environmental regulation. Washington Post (May 10, 2017), --at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/05/10/senates-poised-to-repeal-a-final-obama-era-rule-as-soon-as-wednesday/?utm_term=.f7439c3eda86.
  11. EPA (2009). Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases Under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act, 74 Fed. Reg. 66495 (December 15), --at https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2009/12/15/E9-29537/endangerment-and-cause-or-contribute-findings-for-greenhouse-gases-under-section-202a-of-the-clean.
  12. EPA (2015a). Carbon Pollution Emission Guidelines for Existing Stationary Sources: Electric Utility Generating Units. Final Rule, 80 Federal Register 64661 (23 October), --available at https://19january2017snapshot.epa.gov/cleanpowerplan/clean-power-plan-existing-power-plants_.html (visited 4 June 2017).
  13. EPA (2015b). Regulatory Impact Analysis for the Clean Power Plan Final Rule. EPA-452/R-15-003 (August), Tables ES-2, ES-3, ES-9 and ES-10 (using a 3% discount rate), --at https://www3.epa.gov/ttnecas1/docs/ria/utilities_ria_final-clean-power-plan-existing-units_2015-08.pdf (visited 4 June 2017).
  14. EPA (2017a). Complying with President Trump’s Executive Order on Energy Independence (28 April), --at https://www.epa.gov/energy-independence.
  15. EPA (2017b), Review of the Clean Power Plan, 82 Fed. Reg. 16329 (April 4), --at https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2017/04/04/2017-06522/review-of-the-clean-power-plan.
  16. EPA (2017c), Review of the Clean Power Plan, 82 Fed. Reg. 16329, 16330, --at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2017-04-04/pdf/2017-06522.pdf (visited 23 May 2017).
  17. EPA (2017d), Withdrawal of Proposed Rules: Federal Plan Requirements for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electric Utility Generating Units Constructed on or Before January 8, 2014; Model Trading Rules; Amendments to Framework Regulations; and Clean Energy Incentive Program Design Details, 82 Fed. Reg. 16144 (April 3), --at https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2017/04/03/2017-06518/withdrawal-of-proposed-rules-federal-plan-requirements-for-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-electric.
  18. Ewing J. (2017). U.S.-China Climate Relations: Beyond Trump. April 27, --at http://www.realclearworld.com/articles/2017/04/27/us-china_climate_relations_beyond_trump.html.
  19. Farber D.A. (2014). Climate Policy and the United States System of Divided Powers: Dealing with Carbon Leakage and Regulatory Linkage. Transnational Environmental Law, 3: 31-55.
  20. Greenblatt J.B. and Wei M. (2016). Assessment of the climate commitments and additional mitigation policies of the United States. Nature Climate Change (online 26 September), -- www.nature.com/natureclimatechange., DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE3125
  21. Gunther M. (2017). Climate Converts: The Conservatives Who Are Switching Sides on Warming. YaleEnvironment360 (March 30), --at http://e360.yale.edu/features/climate-converts-the-conservatives-who-are-switching-sides-on-climate-change (visited 5 June 2017).
  22. Harvey C. (2017). This climate lawsuit could change everything. No wonder the Trump administration doesn’t want it going to trial. Washington Post (March 9), --at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/03/09/this-climate-lawsuit-could-change-everything-no-wonder-the-trump-administration-doesnt-want-it-going-to-trial/?utm_term=.589078bdb87f.
  23. Helfer L.R. (2005). Exiting Treaties. Virginia Law Review, 91: 1579-1648.
  24. Herring M. (2017). Letter to David Toscano (May 12), --at http://www.oag.state.va.us/files/Opinions/2017/17-010-Toscano-carbon-pollution-%20for-issuance.pdf.
  25. Keohane N. (2017). Trump Just Walked Away from A Great Deal on Climate. Forbes, June 1, --at https://www.forbes.com/sites/edfenergyexchange/2017/06/01/trump-just-walked-away-from-a-great-deal-on-climate/#48153f6e1df7 (visited 3 June 2017).
  26. Keohane R.O. and Victor D.G. (2011). The regime complex for climate change. Perspectives on Politics, 9(1): 7-23
  27. Larsen K., Larsen J., Herndon W., Mohan S. and Houser T. (2017). Taking Stock 2017: Adjusting Expectations for US GHG Emissions. Rhodium Group (24 May), --at http://rhg.com/reports/taking-stock-2017-adjusting-expectations-for-us-ghg-emissions (visited 1 June 2017).
  28. Linn J. and Krupnick A.J. (2017). Ninety-Five Regulatory Experts Express Concerns about Trump Administration Reforms. RFF, 24 May 2017, --at http://www.rff.org/blog/2017/ninety-five-regulatory-experts-express-concerns-about-trump-administration-reforms.
  29. McPherson C. (2017). High-Stakes Climate Lawsuit Led by Youth Turns Its Attention to Trump. Rolling Stone magazine, March 28, --at http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/features/youth-led-high-stakes-climate-lawsuit-shifts-focus-to-trump-w473224.
  30. Meyer R. (2017). ‘America’s Pledge’: Can States and Cities Really Address Climate Change? The Atlantic, June 2, --at https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/06/can-states-and-cities-really-commit-to-the-paris-agreement/528945/.
  31. Mooney C. (2017). Trump will punt decision on the Paris climate agreement until after the G-7, Spicer says. Washington Post, May 9, --at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2017/05/09/trump-will-punt-decision-on-the-paris-climate-agreement-until-after-the-g7-spicer-says/?utm_term=.7bd18c9f3734.
  32. Mulligan S.P. (2017). Withdrawal from International Agreements: Legal Framework, the Paris Agreement, and the Iran Nuclear Agreement. Congressional Research Service (CRS) report R44761 (9 February), --at https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R44761.pdf.
  33. OMB (2017), Memorandum: Implementing Executive Order 13771, Titled ‘Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs’. (5 April), --at https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2017/04/05/memorandum-implementing-executive-order-13771-titled-reducing-regulation.
  34. Parrillo N.R. (2017). The Fate of the Clean Power Plan Case: Hold in Abeyance, or Remand? Yale Journal on Regulation: Notice & Comment (5 May), --at http://yalejreg.com/nc/the-fate-of-the-clean-power-plan-case-hold-in-abeyance-or-remand-by-nicholas-r-parrillo/ (visited 23 May 2017).
  35. Pizer W., Adler M., Aldy J., Anthoff D., Cropper M., Gillingham K., Greenstone M., Murray B., Newell R., Richels R., Rowell A., Waldhoff S. and Wiener J. (2014). Using and Improving the Social Cost of Carbon. Science, 346(6214): 1189-1190 (5 December), --available at http://www.sciencemag.org/content/346/6214/1189.full.
  36. Rorke C., Moylan A. and Semelsberger D. (2016). Swapping the Corporate Income Tax for a Price on Carbon. R Street Policy Study, 79, December, --at http://www.rstreet.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/79.pdf and http://www.rstreet.org/policy-study/swapping-the-corporate-income-tax-for-a-price-on-carbon/ (visited 5 June 2017).
  37. Ross M.T., Hoppock D. and Murray B. (2016). Ongoing Evolution of the Electricity Industry: Effects of Market Conditions and the Clean Power Plan on States. Nicholas Institute WP 16-07 (Duke University) (modeling the effects of the CPP in reducing US emissions under scenarios for natural gas prices and other factors), --at https://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/sites/default/files/publications/ni_wp_16-07_final.pdf.
  38. Sanger D.E. and Perlez J. (2017). Trump Hands the Chinese a Gift: The Chance for Global Leadership. NY Times, June 2, p. A1,-- at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/01/us/politics/climate-accord-trump-china-global-leadership.html (visited 3 June 2017).
  39. Schwartz J. (2017). Debate Over Paris Climate Deal Could Turn on a Single Phrase. NY Times, May 2, --at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/02/climate/trump-paris-climate-accord.html.
  40. Schwartz J. (2017a). A Conservative Climate Solution’: Republican Group Calls for Carbon Tax. NY Times, February 7, --at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/07/science/a-conservative-climate-solution-republican-group-calls-for-carbon-tax.html.
  41. Shear M. (2017). Trump Will Withdraw US from Paris Climate Agreement. NY Times, June 1, --at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/01/climate/trump-paris-climate-agreement.html.
  42. Smale A. (2017). Angela Merkel and Emmanuel Macron Unite Behind Paris Accord. NY Times, June 2, --at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/02/world/europe/paris-agreement-merkel-trump-macron.html (visited 3 June 2017).
  43. Stavins R., Ji Z., Brewer T., Conte Grand M., den Elzen M., Finus M., Gupta J., Höhne N., Lee M.-K., Michaelowa A., Paterson M., Ramakrishna K., Wen G., Wiener J. and Winkler H. (2014). International Cooperation: Agreements and Institutions. Chapter 13. In: Edenhofer O. et al. (Eds.). Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change, contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), --at http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/.
  44. Stewart R.B. and Wiener J.B. (2003). Reconstructing Climate Policy: Beyond Kyoto. Washington: AEI Press.
  45. Taylor J. (2015). The Conservative Case for a Carbon Tax. Niskanen Center (March 23), --at http://niskanencenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/The-Conservative-Case-for-a-Carbon-Tax1.pdf (visited 5 June 2017).
  46. Teng’o D. (2017). Montreal Protocol marks a milestone with first ratification of Kigali Amendment. UNEP (April 3), --at http://www.unep.org/newscentre/montreal-protocol-marks-milestone-first-ratification-kigali-amendment.
  47. Trump D.J. (2016). An America First Energy Plan (May 26), --at https://www.donaldjtrump.com/press-releases/an-america-first-energy-plan.
  48. White A.J. (2017). Diplomacy, Distrust, and the Paris Climate Accord. Lawfare blog, June 1, --at https://lawfareblog.com/diplomacy-distrust-and-paris-climate-accord (visited 3 June 2017).
  49. Wiener J.B. (1999). Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context. Yale Law Journal, 108: 677-800., DOI: 10.2307/797394
  50. Wiener J.B. (2007). Think Globally, Act Globally: The Limits of Local Climate Policies. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 155: 1961-1980.
  51. Wiener J.B. (2008a). Climate Change Policy, and Policy Change in China. UCLA Law Review, 55: 1805, --at http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/faculty_scholarship/1881/.
  52. Wiener J.B. (2008b), Radiative Forcing: Climate Policy to Break the Logjam in Environmental Law. NYU Environmental Law Journal, 17: 210-255.
  53. Wiener J.B. (2015). Towards an Effective System of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification. Chapter 13. In: Barrett S., Carraro C. and de Melo J. (Eds.). Towards a Workable and Effective Climate Regime. London: CEPR Press and FERDI: 183-200, --at http://www.voxeu.org/content/towards-workable-and-effective-climate-regime.
  54. Wiener J.B. and Richman B.D. (2010). Mechanism Choice. In: Farber D.A. and O’Connell A.J. (Eds.). Research Handbook on Public Choice and Public Law. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  55. Wirth D.A. (2017). While Trump Pledges Withdrawal from Paris Agreement on Climate, International Law May Provide a Safety Net. Lawfare blog, June 2,-- at https://lawfareblog.com/while-trump-pledges-withdrawal-paris-agreement-climate-international-law-may-provide-safety-net (visited 3 June 2017).
  56. Wong E. (2017). Can China Take the Lead on Climate Change? That Could Be Difficult. NY Times, June 3, p. A7, --at https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/02/climate/china-climate-change-trump-paris-accord.html (visited 3 June 2017).

Jonathan B. Wiener, in "ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT" 3/2016, pp. 45-61, DOI:10.3280/EFE2016-003004

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content