Clicca qui per scaricare

Acculturazione e consumo di alcolici negli studenti italiani in mobilità internazionale. Uno studio mixed methods
Titolo Rivista: PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE 
Autori/Curatori: Valentina Ferrari, Giovanni Aresi, Elena Marta 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2017 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  27 P. 25-51 Dimensione file:  306 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PDS2017-003002
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


L’obiettivo del presente studio è indagare il ruolo dell’acculturazione e dell’adjustment socio-culturale e psicologico nel fenomeno dell’aumento del consumo di alcol tra gli studenti che studiano all’estero (Credit Mobility Students ? CMS). È stato ipotizzato, in linea con le teorie dello stress e coping acculturativo e dell’apprendimento socio-culturale, che un maggior orientamento verso la cultura d’origine, alti livelli di adjustment socio-culturale e bassi tassi di adjustment psicologico fungano da fattori di rischio per l’incremento del consumo di alcolici in questa popolazione. La ricerca si è basata su di un disegno mixed method. È stato somministrato un questionario online anonimo in due tempi (T1, pre-partenza e T2, durante il soggiorno) ad un primo campione (N = 231; genere = 68.4% femmine e 31.6% maschi; età media = 22, DS = 1.54), composto da CMS italiani di un’università milanese. 30 di loro sono successivamente stati intervistati al rientro in Italia. I risultati della regressione logistica hanno mostrato che il solo adjustment psicologico è associato positivamente alla quantità di alcol consumata, falsificando le ipotesi di ricerca. I risultati delle analisi del materiale qualitativo indicano che, nel corso dell’esperienza all’estero, gli studenti conducono uno stile di vita simile a quello vacanziero, caratterizzato da un limitato contatto con la cultura locale, condizione che appare legata all’incremento nel consumo di alcolici. In conclusione, i modelli teorici sviluppati sulla popolazione immigrata non paiono adeguati a interpretare il fenomeno del consumo di alcol tra i CMS italiani.


Keywords: Credit Mobility Students (CMS), studenti che studiano all’estero, acculturazione, adjustment, consumo di alcol

  1. Alfieri S., Marta E., Lanz M., Pozzi M. e Tagliabue S. (2014). Famiglia delle regole e famiglia degli affetti: quali conseguenze su benessere e disagio dei figli? Psicologia della Salute, 2: 61-78., 10.3280/PDS2014-00200DOI: 10.3280/PDS2014-00200
  2. Amundsen E.J. (2012). Low level of alcohol drinking among two generations of non-Western immigrants in Oslo: a multi-ethnic comparison. BMC Public Health, 12(535)., 10.1186/1471-2458-12-53DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-53
  3. Amundsen E.J., Rossow I. and Skurtveit S. (2005). Drinking pattern among adolescents with immigrant and Norwegian backgrounds: A two-way influence? Addiction, 100: 1453-1463.
  4. Aresi G., Moore S. and Marta E. (2016). Italian Credit Mobility Students Significantly In-crease Their Alcohol Intake, Risky Drinking and Related Consequences During the Study Abroad Experience. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 51(6): 723-726.
  5. Aresi G. e Marta E. (2014). Una ricerca-intervento in un quartiere ad alta concentrazione di locali notturni: attivare il territorio per identificare bisogni e risorse. Psicologia della Salute, 3: 80-89., 10.3280/PDS2014-00300DOI: 10.3280/PDS2014-00300
  6. Argyle M. (1973). Social Interaction (Vol. 103). Transaction Publishers.
  7. Arnett J.J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55(5): 469., 10.1037//0003-066X.55.5.46DOI: 10.1037//0003-066X.55.5.46
  8. Bandura A. (1971). Social Learning Theory. New York City: General Learning Press.
  9. Berry J.W. (1970). Marginality, stress and ethnic identification in an acculturated Aboriginal community. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(13): 239-252., 10.1177/13591045700010030DOI: 10.1177/13591045700010030
  10. Berry J.W. (1997). Immigration, Acculturation, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46(1): 5-68.
  11. Berry J.W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(6): 697-712.
  12. Berry J.W. (2006). Stress Perspectives on Acculturation. In: Sam D.L. and Berry J.W., editors, The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 43-57.
  13. Bochner S. (2006). Sojourners. In: Sam D.L. and Berry J.W., editors, The Cambridge Hand-book of Acculturation Psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 181-197.
  14. Bryant A.N. and Kim G. (2013). The relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants. Aging & Mental Health, 17(2): 147-156., 10.1080/13607863.2012.72738DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2012.72738
  15. Cai S. (2015). Acculturation and Alcohol Drinking Behavior among Chinese International University Students in the Midwest. Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences. Paper 257.
  16. Carr N. (2002). A comparative analysis of the behaviour of domestic and international young tourists. Tourism Management, 23: 321-325., 10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00089-DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00089-
  17. Charmaz K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory. London: SAGE.
  18. Demes K.A. and Geeraert N. (2014). Measures Matter: Scales for Adaptation, Cultural Distance, and Acculturation Orientation Revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(1): 91-109., 10.1177/002202211348759DOI: 10.1177/002202211348759
  19. Des Rosiers S.E., Schwartz S.J., Zamboanga B.L., Ham L.S. and Huang S. (2013). A cultural and social cognitive model of differences in acculturation orientations, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol‐related risk behaviors among Hispanic college students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(4): 319-340.
  20. Ehlers C.L., Gilder D.A., Criado J.R. and Caetano R. (2009). Acculturation stress, anxiety disorders, and alcohol dependence in a select population of young adult Mexican Americans. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 3(4): 227-233.
  21. ESPAD (2015). The European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. Retrieved from http://www.espad.org/en/Reports--Documents/ESPAD-Documents/
  22. European Commission (2014). The EU programme for education, training, youth and sport (2014-2020). Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/sites/erasmusplus/files/library/erasmus-plus-factsheet_en.pdf
  23. Geelhoed R.J., Abe J. and Talbot D.M. (2003). A Qualitative Investigation of U.S. Students’ Experiences in an International Peer Program. Journal of College Student Development, 44(1): 5-17.
  24. Gual A., Martos A.R., Lligoña A. and Llopis J.J. (1999). Does the concept of a standard drink apply to viticultural societies? Alcohol and Alcoholism, 34(2): 153-160.
  25. Guilamo-Ramos V., Jaccard J., Johansson M. and Turrisi R. (2004). Binge drinking among Latino youth: role of acculturation-related variables. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 18(2): 135-42., 10.1037/0893-164X.18.2.13DOI: 10.1037/0893-164X.18.2.13
  26. Hendershot C.S., Dillworth T.M., Neighbors C. and George W.H. (2008). Differential effects of acculturation on drinking behavior in Chinese ‒ and Korean ‒ American college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 69(1): 121-128.
  27. Hughes K., Bellis M.A., Whelan G., Calafat A., Juan M. and Blay N. (2009). Alcohol, drugs, sex and violence: health risks and consequences in young British holidaymakers to the Balearics. Adicciones, 21(4): 265-278.
  28. Hummer J.F., Pedersen E.R., Mirza T. and LaBrie J.W. (2010). Factors Associated with General and Sexual Alcohol-Related Consequences: An Examination of College Students while Studying Abroad. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 47(4): 427-444., 10.2202/1949-6605.613DOI: 10.2202/1949-6605.613
  29. Institute of International Education (2015). “Open Doors 2015: Report on International Educational Exchange”. Retrieved from http://www.iie.org/Research-and-Publications/Open-Doors/Data
  30. Jacobson I.G., Ryan M.A K., Hooper T.I., Smith T.C., Amoroso P.J., Boyko E.J., Gackstet-ter G.D., Wells T.S., Bell N.S. (2008). Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Be-fore and After Military Combat Deployment. Journal of American Medical Association, 300(6): 663-675.
  31. Karriker-Jaffe K.J. and Zemore S.E. (2009). Associations between acculturation and alcohol consumption of Latino men in the United States. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(1): 27-31.
  32. Kashima E.S. and Loh E. (2006). International students’ acculturation: Effects of international, conational, and local ties and need for closure. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(4): 471-485.
  33. Kuntsche E. and Labhart F. (2012). Investigating the drinking patterns of young people over the course of the evening at weekends. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 124(3): 319-324.
  34. Mancini T. and Bottura B. (2014). Acculturation processes and intercultural relations in peripheral and central domains among native Italian and migrant adolescents. An application of the Relative Acculturation Extended Model (RAEM). International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 40: 49-63.
  35. Markides K.S., Snih S.A., Walsh T., Malcolm C., Ju H. and Goodwin J.S. (2013). Problem Drinking Among Mexican-Americans: The Influence of Nativity and Neighborhood Con-text? American Journal of Health Promotion, 26(4): 225-229.
  36. Migliorini L., Rania N. and Cardinali P. (2016). Acculturation strategies and adjustment in immigrant and host Italian communities. TPM, Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, 23 (1): 99-112., 10.4473/TPM23.1.DOI: 10.4473/TPM23.1.
  37. Mills B.A. and Caetano R. (2012). Decomposing Associations Between Acculturation and Drinking in Mexican Americans. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 36(7): 1205-1211.
  38. Monterrubio J.C., Josiam B. and Duncan J. (2015). Tequila at Sunrise: Spring Break Travel Motivations and Risk Behaviors of American Students in Acapulco, Mexico. Hospitality Review, 31(4).
  39. Navas M.S., García M.C., Sánchez J., Rojas A.J., Pumares P. and Fernández J.S. (2005). Relative acculturation extended model (RAEM): New contributions with regard to the study of acculturation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29: 21-37.
  40. Navas M., Rojas A.J., García M. and Pumares P. (2007). Acculturation strategies and attitudes according to the Relative Acculturation Extended Model (RAEM): The perspectives of natives versus immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31: 67-86.
  41. Pedersen E.R., Cruz R.A., Labrie, J.W. and Hummer J.F. (2011). Examining the Relationships Between Acculturation Orientations, Perceived and Actual Norms, and Drinking Behaviors of Short-Term American Sojourners in Foreign Environments. Prevention Science, 12(4): 401-410.
  42. Pedersen E.R., LaBrie J.W. and Hummer J.F. (2009). Perceived Behavioral Alcohol Norms Predict Drinking for College Students While Studying Abroad. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(6): 924-8.
  43. Pedersen E.R., Neighbors C., Larimer M.E. and Lee C.M. (2011). Measuring Sojourner Adjustment among American students studying abroad. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(6): 881-889.
  44. Pedersen E.R., Neighbors C., Lee C.M. and Larimer M.E. (2012). Not All Those Who Wander Are Lost: Examining the Impact of Sojourner Adjustment and Drinking Motives on Alcohol Consequences Experienced by Americans. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 73(6): 1005-1015.
  45. Pedersen E.R., Skidmore J.R. and Aresi G. (2014). Demographic and pre departure factors associated with drinking and alcohol-related consequences for college students completing study abroad experiences. Journal of American College Health, 62(4): 244-54., 10.1080/07448481.2014.88757DOI: 10.1080/07448481.2014.88757
  46. Raffaelli M., Torres Stone R.A., Iturbide M.I., McGinley M., Carlo G. and Crockett L.J. (2007). Acculturation, gender, and alcohol use among Mexican American college students. Addictive Behaviors, 32(10): 2187-2199.
  47. Redfield R., Linton R. and Herskovits M.J. (1936). Memorandum for the Study of Acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38(1): 149-152.
  48. Rienties B. and Nolan E.M. (2014). Understanding friendship and learning networks of international and host students using longitudinal Social Network Analysis. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 41: 165-180.
  49. Savage J.E. and Mezuk B. (2014). Psychosocial and Contextual Determinants of Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders in the National Latino and Asian American Study. Drug Alcohol Depend, 139: 71-78.
  50. Schwartz S.J., Weisskirch R.S., Zamboanga B.L., Castillo L.G., Ham L.S., Huynh Q.L., Park I.J.K. Donovan R. , Su Yeong K., Vernon, M.D. Cano M.A. (2011). Dimensions of acculturation: associations with health risk behaviors among college students from immigrant families. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(1): 27-41.
  51. Seki A. (2016). The Positive Effects of the Buddy Model in International Student Exchange. The Journal of Humanities and Natural Sciences, 138: 73-90.
  52. Sonmez S., Apostolopoulos Y., Yu C.H., Yang S., Mattila A. and Yu L.C. (2006). Binge Drinking and Casual Sex on Spring Break. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(4): 895-917.
  53. Tutenges S. and Hesse M. (2008). Patterns of Binge Drinking at an International Nightlife Resort. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 43(5): 595-599.
  54. Theocharous A., Zopiatis A. and Philaretou A.G. (2015). The Social Construction of Male Tourism Deviance: The Case of Agia Napa (AN), Cyprus. Sexuality & Culture, 19(4): 816-834.
  55. Wahl A.-M.G. and Eitle T.M. (2010). Gender, Acculturation and Alcohol Use among Latina / o Adolescents: A Multi-Ethnic Comparison. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 12: 153-165.
  56. Ward C. (1996). Acculturation. In: Landis D. and Bhagat R.S., editors, Handbook of intercultural training, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 124-147.
  57. Ward C.A., Bochner S. and Furnham A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock. Hove, East Sussex: Routledge.
  58. Ward C. and Kennedy A. (1999). The Measurement of Sociocultural Adaptation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 23(4): 659-677., 10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00014-DOI: 10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00014-
  59. Ward C., Okura Y., Kennedy A. and Kojima T. (1998). The U-Curve On Trial: A Longitudinal Study of Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment During Cross-Cultural Transition. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 11(2): 166-180., 10.1016/S0147-1767(98)00008-DOI: 10.1016/S0147-1767(98)00008-
  60. Zamboanga B.L., Raffaelli M. and Horton N.J. (2006). Acculturation status and heavy alcohol use among Mexican American college students: Investigating the moderating role of gender. Addictive Behaviors, 31(12): 2188-2198.
  61. Zemore S.E. (2007). Acculturation and Alcohol Among Latino Adults in the United States: A Comprehensive Review. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(12): 1968-1990.

Valentina Ferrari, Giovanni Aresi, Elena Marta, in "PSICOLOGIA DELLA SALUTE" 3/2017, pp. 25-51, DOI:10.3280/PDS2017-003002

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche