The gut microbiota (GM) is able to influence host PNEI regulative systems throughout the microbiota-gut-brain-axis (MBGA) and its own genetic heritage (microbioma). Many studies showed the ability of the microbioma to regulate the energetic balance of the human body acting on energetic consumption and adipose tissue deposition. In turn, GM is influenced by nutrition: a high-fat diet in the obese phenotype is able to increase the ratio between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, inducing a dysbiosis that, together with metabolic imbalance, genetic and environmental factors as drugs, stress, alcohol, gluten, etc., could increase the intestinal wall permeability and, thus, the absorption of bacterial endotoxins that promote innate immunity activation, establishing a chronic low-grade inflamatory state. This condition augments insulin-resistance and other physiopathological mechanisms at the base of the cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS). The complexity of the CMS needs an integrated treatment based on both restoration of eubiosis condition and intestinal barrier integrity. To achieve this end, prebiotics, probiotics, colostrum and glutamine carry out paramount therapeutic roles.
Keywords: Chronic low grade inflammation, microbiome, gut microbiota, cardiometabolic syndrome, leaky gut syndrome, dysbiosis