This work reconstructs the process of industrialisation that involved the area of Taranto from the 1960s onwards. It examines the situation of the area in the previous decade, highlighting the elements that contributed to the economic crisis of the town and the dynamics that characterized the urban development. Then, it focuses on the decisional process regarding the location of the Italsider steel plant, and the consequent modification of the territorial arrangement, together with the impact of this plant on the local society, and its interaction with urban development. Further, it analyses the debate about city planning in the Sixties. Finally, it examines the consequences of the "doubling" of the steel plant: the mounting evidence about pollution and its impact, the tensions between the company and the local institutions about the control of the territory, the problem of the diversification of the local economy.
Keywords: Taranto, Italsider Steel Plant, Industrialization, Urban Development, Urban Planning, Territory