Click here to download

Circular economy: Implementing a small-scale project in a rural area
Journal Title: ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 
Author/s: Dream D. Cazzaniga, Giulia Detomati 
Year:  2017 Issue: 1-2 Language: English 
Pages:  27 Pg. 191-217 FullText PDF:  1290 KB
DOI:  10.3280/EFE2017-001010
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


The Circular Economy (CE) is one of the most recent theoretical framework for identi-fying sustainable solutions to the environmental threats posed by our economic system. In certain countries, both the private and public sectors have increasingly introduced this concept into their strategies and policies. Despite the widespread consensus and outreach of this model, there are still some key issues to be addressed in relation to project implementation and assessment. Through the analysis of a small-scale project in Northern Italy, the authors have chosen a practical case study to highlight a number of the main perspectives on how to operationalize CE. In particular, they provide an analysis of the project methods and results in order to understand the winning choices as well as the major constraints in putting the model in practice. In the conclusion the authors identify certain areas of intervention to be considered for effective implementation and enduring systemic change. Some measurement and monitoring instruments are also suggested to facilitate the achievement of the CE’s overarching goals in the long-term.
Keywords: Circular economy, zero waste, waste management, bio-waste, environmental policy
Jel Code: F64,H23,O44,Q01,Q13,Q18,Q28,Q32,Q51,Q55,R11

  1. OECD (2014). Green Growth Indicators 2014. OECD Green Growth Studies. OECD Publishing. At
  2. Ademe (2015). White paper on the circular economy of greater Paris. Etaux generaux de l’economie circulaire à Paris.
  3. Arpa (2011-2014). Archivio dati. -- At www.arpalombardia.it (last visit 23/02/2017).
  4. Blomsma F. and Brennan G. (2017). The emergence of circular economy: a new framing around prolonging resource productivity. J. Ind. Ecol. 21(3): 603-614.
  5. Boulding K.E. (1966). The economics of coming spaceship earth. In: Jarret H. (Ed.), Environmental quality in a growing economy. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
  6. Brinton W.F. (2000). Compost quality standards and guidelines. Woods End Research Laboratory, Inc.
  7. Cao J., Li M. and Li S. (2011). Development strategy research of modern eco-agriculture on the basis of constructing the rural circular economy-for the example of Shandong province. Energy Procedia 5, 2504-2508.
  8. Campos-Vega R., Loarca-Pina G., Vergara-Castaneda H.A. and Oomah B.D. (2015). Spent coffee grounds: A review on current research and future prospects. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 45(1), September: 24-36.
  9. Committee of Experts on Environmental Economic Accounting (2012). Revision of the system of the environmental-economic accounting (SEEA). SEEA Central Framework.
  10. Commoner B. (1971) The closing circle. Alfred A. Knopf (NY).
  11. Connett P. (2012). Ten steps to Zero Waste (presentation). -- At www.zerowasteitaly.it. (last visit 27/02/2017).
  12. Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs (DMIE) (2016). A Circular Economy in the Netherlands by 2050. -- At https://www.government.nl/documents/policy-notes/2016/09/14/a-circular-economy-in-the-netherlands-by-2050. (last visit 12/12/17).
  13. Ellen Macarthur Foundation (EMF) (2012). Towards the Circular Economy Vol.1: an economic and business rationale for an accelerated transition. Ellen Macarthur Foundation.
  14. Ellen Macarthur Foundation (2013). Towards the Circular Economy Vol.2: Opportunities for the consumer goods sector. Ellen Macarthur Foundation.
  15. Ellen Macarthur Foundation (2015). Circularity Indicators. An approach to measuring circularity. Ellen Macarthur Foundation
  16. EU Commission (2012). European resource efficiency platform (EREP): Manifesto and policy recommendations. -- At http://ec.europa.eu/environment/resource_efficiency/documents/erep_manifesto_and_policy_recommendations_31-03-2014.pdf (last visit 27/02/2017).
  17. EU Commission (2014). General Union environment action program to 2020., DOI: 10.2779/68165.
  18. EU Parliament (2016). Circular economy package. Four legislative proposals on waste. -- At http://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/en/home.html (last visit 27/02/2017).
  19. Eurostat (2016). Main tables (waste generation and treatment). -- At http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/environment/waste/main-tables (last visit 06/02/2017.)
  20. Ford A. (1999). Modeling the Environment: An Introduction to System Dynamics of Environmental Systems. Washington DC: Island Press.
  21. Geng Y., Fu J., Sarkis J. and Xue B. (2012). Towards a national circular economy indicator system in China: an evaluation and critical analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 23: 216-224.
  22. Ghisellini P., Cialani C. and Ulgiati S. (2015). A review on circular economy: the expected transition to a balanced interplay of environmental and economic systems. Journal of Cleaner Production 114 (2016) 11e32.
  23. Green Economy Observatory (GEO) (2016). Documento di proposta GEO per promuovere l’economia circolare in Italia. Istituto di Economia e Politica dell’Energia e dell’Ambiente.
  24. Han J. and He X. (2011). Development of circular economy is a fundamental way to achieve agriculture sustainable development in China. Energy Procedia, 5: 1530-1534.
  25. Heck P. (2006). Circular economy related international practices and policy trends: Current situation and practices on sustainable production and consumption and international circular economy development policy summary and analysis. At worldbank.org (last visit 15/02/2017).
  26. Heshmati A. (2015). A Review of the Circular Economy and its Implementation. Discussion Paper IZA DP No. 9611.
  27. Huang X. (2011). Models of circular economy on agriculture in Yunnan province. Energy Procedia 5, 1078-1083.
  28. Ispra (2016). Rapporto rifiuti urbani 2016. ISPRA, Rapporto n. 251/2016.
  29. Ispra (2017). Rapporto rifiuti urbani 2017. ISPRA, Rapporto n. 272/2017.
  30. Kirchherr J., Reike D. and Hekkert M., (2017). Conceptualizing the circular economy: An analysis of 114 definitions. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 127: 221-232.
  31. Korhonen J., Honkasalo A. and Seppälä J. (2018). Circular Economy: The Concept and its Limitations. Ecological Economics, 143: 37-46.j.ecolecon.2017.06.041.
  32. Li W.F. and Zhang T.Z. (2005). Research on the circular economy evaluation index system in resource based city. Economic Management Journal, 8: 82-86.
  33. Linnaeus C. and Biberg I.J. (1749). Oeconomia Naturae. -- At http://linnean-online.org/120097/. (last visit 12/01/18).
  34. Linnaeus C. (1760). Dissertatio academica de politia naturae. HCD Wilcke, respondent. Upsala, Sweden.
  35. Liu J.Y. (2012). Circular economy and environmental efficiency – the case of traditional Hakka Living system. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 57: 255-260.
  36. Maani K.E. and Cavana R.Y. (2000). Systems Thinking, System Dynamics: Managing Change and Complexity (Second Edition). Auckland: Pearson Education New Zealand.
  37. Martinez-Saez N., TamargoGarcía A., DomínguezPérez I., Rebollo-Hernanz M., Mesías M., Morales F.J., A.Martín-Cabrejas M.A. and Dolores del Castillo M. (2017). Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products. Food Chem., Feb, 1: 216: 114-22.
  38. McDonough W. and Braungart M. (2002). Cradle to Cradle: remaking the way we make things. North Point PR.
  39. McDonough W. and Braungart M. (2013). The Upcycle: Beyond Sustainability - Designing for Abundance. North Point PR.
  40. McKinsey Center for Business and Environment (2016). The circular economy: Moving from theory to practice. McKinsey Center for Business and Environment.
  41. MEA (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends, Volume 1. -- At http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.766.aspx.pdf (last visit 12/02/2017).
  42. Meadows D.H., Meadows D.L. and Randers J. (2004). Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update. London: Earthscan.
  43. Morgoni, Puppato and Vaccari (2016). Risoluzione della 13ma commissione permanente. Senato della Repubblica. Doc. XVIII n. 134.
  44. Murray A., Skene K. and Haynes K. (2015). The Circular Economy: An interdisciplinary exploration of the concept and application in a global context. Journal of Business Ethics 2015.
  45. Pauliuk S. (2018). Critical appraisal of the circular economy standard BS 8001:2017 and a dashboard of quantitative system indicators for its implementation in organizations. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 129: 81-92.
  46. Pearce D.W. and Turner R.K. (1989). Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment.
  47. Pisano U., Lange L. K., Lepuschitz K. and Berger G. (2015). The role of stakeholder participation in European sustainable development policies and strategies. ESDN Quarterly Report No 39.
  48. Plinio il Vecchio (2010). L’estrazione dei metalli preziosi (Naturalis historia XXXIII, 1-7 e 95-100). -- At http://online.scuola.zanichelli.it/perutelliletteratura/files/2010/09/testi-it_plinioilvecchio_t10.pdf (last visit 27/02/2017).
  49. Reike D., Vermeulen W.J.V. and Witjes D., (2017). The circular economy: New or Refurbished as CE 3.0? – Exploring Controversies in the Conceptualization of the Circular Economy through a Focus on History and Resource Value Retention Options. Resources, Conservation & Recycling.
  50. Ritzén S. and Ölundh Sandström G. (2017). Barriers to the Circular Economy – integration of perspectives and domains. Procedia CIRP 64: 7-12.
  51. SAPM (2014). Progetto “Caffè in campo”. Esito delle indagini merceologiche condotte nel giugno-luglio 2014. CIC project working papers. Unpublished.
  52. Sasom (2015). Relazione sulla gestione del bilancio al 31/12/2014. CIC project working papers. Unpublished.
  53. Savci S. (2012). Investigation of Effect of Chemical Fertilizers on Environment. ICESD 2012: 5-7.
  54. Schumacher E.F. (1973). Small is beautiful. London: Blond & Briggs.
  55. Senge P.M., Lichtenstein B.B., Kaeufer K., Bradbury H. and Carroll J.S. (2007). Collaborating for systemic change. MIT Sloan Management Review, 48(2). -- At https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/collaborating-for-systemic-change/ (last visit 18/01/2018).
  56. Siebert S. (2016). Bio-Waste Recycling in Europe Against the Backdrop of the Circular Economy Package. European Compost Network.
  57. Silver W.L., Brown S., Scatena F.N. and Ewel J. (2001). A History of the Ecological Sciences: Early Greek Origins. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. -- At www.esapubs.org/bulletin/current/history_list/history_part1.pdf. (last visit 02/01/2018).
  58. Soil and Plant Laboratory Inc. (2017). The Starbucks coffee compost test. At Soil and Plant Laboratory Inc. (last visit 20/12/2017).
  59. Stave K.A. (2002). Using system dynamics to improve public participation in environmental decisions. Syst. Dyn. Rev., 18: 139-167.
  60. Sterman J.D., (2002). All models are wrong: reflections on becoming a systems scientist. Syst. Dyn. Rev., 18: 501-531.
  61. Sterman J.D. (2006). Learning in and about complex systems. Syst. Dyn. Rev, 10(2-3).
  62. Su B., Heshmati A., Geng Y. and Yu X. (2013). A review of the circular economy in China: moving from rhetoric to implementation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 42: 215-227.
  63. Van Berkel R., Fujita T., Hashimoto S. and Geng Y. (2009). Industrial and urban symbiosis in Japan: analysis of the eco-town. Journal of Environmental Management, 90: 1544-1556.
  64. Venti Sostenibili (2014-2015). CIC project working papers. Unpublished.
  65. Wackernagel M. and Rees W. (1996). Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human impact on the earth. Philadelphia, PA, New Society Publishers.
  66. WCED (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  67. Westblom C. (2015) Towards a Circular Economy in Sweden – Barriers for new business models and the need for policy intervention. The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics. -- At http://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/record/8170322 (last visited 24/02/2017).
  68. Zhou K., Bonet Fernandez D., Wan C., Denis A. and Juillard, G.M. (2014). A Study on Circular Economy Implementation in China. Working Papers 2014 -312 (pp. 13). Paris: IPAG Business School. -- At http://www.ipag.fr/wp-content/uploads/recherche/WP/IPAG_WP_2014_312.pdf. (last visit 02/01/2018).
  69. Zero Waste France (ZWF) (2017). Le Scenario Zero waste 2.0. Rue de l’echiquier

Dream D. Cazzaniga, Giulia Detomati, in "ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT" 1-2/2017, pp. 191-217, DOI:10.3280/EFE2017-001010

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content