Clicca qui per scaricare

Into the new. Esplorare le new towns cinesi
Titolo Rivista: TERRITORIO 
Autori/Curatori: Michele Bonino, Francesca Governa, Angelo Sampieri 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2018 Fascicolo: 85 Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  19 P. 21-39 Dimensione file:  9090 KB
DOI:  10.3280/TR2018-085003
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 

L’articolo discute i processi di urbanizzazione cinesi a partire dalle new town che si stanno costruendo nel paese. Attraverso la ricostruzione dei processi che danno forma, materiale e simbolica, ai luoghi, le new town sono assunte come cartine di tornasole che assorbono e riverberano le caratteristiche e le contraddizioni dell’urbanizzazione cinese contemporanea, superando l’eccezionalità dei dati demografici. Interrogare le new town diventa così un modo per mettere in discussione ciò che le città sono (e sono diventate), in Cina come altrove.

Keywords: New towns; processi di urbanizzazione in Cina; città contemporanea

  1. Allen I.L., 1977, ed., New towns and the suburban dream: ideology and utopia in planning and development. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press.
  2. Bosker B., 2013, Original Copies: Architectural Mimicry in Contemporary China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
  3. Braudel F., 1985, La dynamique du capitalisme. Paris: Arthaud.
  4. Brenner N., 1999, «Globalization as reterritorialization: the re-scaling of urban governance in the European Union». Urban Studies, 36, 3: 431-451., 10.1080/0042098993466DOI: 10.1080/0042098993466
  5. Brenner N., 2004, New State Spaces. Urban Governance and the Rescaling of Statehood. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. Brenner N., 2013, «Theses on urbanization». Public Culture, 25, 1: 767-786., 10.1215/08992363-1890477DOI: 10.1215/08992363-1890477
  7. Ho P., 2001, «Who owns China’s land? Policies, property, rights and deliberate institutional ambiguity». The China Quaterly, 166: 394-421., 10.1017/S0009443901000195DOI: 10.1017/S0009443901000195
  8. Brenner N., 2014, ed., Implosions/explosions: towards a study of planetary urbanization. Berlin: Jovis.
  9. Brenner N., 2016, «The hinterland urbanised?». Architectural Design, 86, 4: 118–127.
  10. Brenner N., Schmidt C., 2014, «The ‘Urban Age’ in question». International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38, 3: 731-755., 10.1111/1468-2427.12115DOI: 10.1111/1468-2427.12115
  11. Hoffmann L., 2011, «Urban Modeling and Contemporary Technologies of City-Building in China: The Production of Regimes of Green Urbanisms ». In: Roy, Ong, 2011: 55-76.
  12. Brenner N., Schmidt C., 2015, «Towards a new epistemology of the urban? ». City, 19, 2-3: 151-182., 10.1515/9783110525458-002DOI: 10.1515/9783110525458-002
  13. Cao G., Feng C., Tao R., 2008, «Local ‘Land Finance’ in China’s Urban Expansion: Challenges and Solutions». China & World Economy, 16, 2: 19–30.
  14. Cao J.A., 2015, The Chinese Real Estate Market: Development, Regulation and Investment. London-New York: Routledge.
  15. Cartier C., 2005, «City-space: scale relations and China’s spatial administrative hierarchy». In: Ma J.C.L., Wu F. (eds.), Restructuring the Chinese
  16. City: Changing society, economy and space. New York: Routledge, 21-38.
  17. Castells M., 1996, The Rise of the Network Society. London: Routledge.
  18. Chan K.W., 2007, «Misconceptions and Complexities in the Study of China’s Cities: Definitions, Statistics, and Implications». Eurasian Geography and Economics, 48, 4: 383-412., 10.2747/1538-7216.48.4.383DOI: 10.2747/1538-7216.48.4.383
  19. Chan K.W., 2010, «Fundamentals of China’s Urbanization and Policy». The China Review, 10, 1: 63–94.
  20. Ikeda S., 2003, «US Hegemony and East Asia: An Exploration of China’s Challenge in the 21st Century». In: Dunaway A.W.(ed.), Emerging Issues in the 21st Century World-System Volume 2 New Theoretical Directions for the 21st World-System, 162-179. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.
  21. Chan K.W., 2014. «China’s urbanization 2020: a new blueprint and direction ». Eurasian Geography and Economics, 55, 1: 1-9., 10.1080/15387216.2014.925410DOI: 10.1080/15387216.2014.925410
  22. Iossifova D., 2012, «Shanghai borderlands: the rise of a new urbanity?». In: Edensor, Jayne, 2012: 193-206.
  23. Datta A., 2017, «Introduction: Fast Cities in an Urban Age». In: Datta, Shaban, 2017: 1-28.
  24. Katz P., 1994, The New Urbanism. Toward an Architecture of Community. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  25. Keeton R., 2011, Rising in the East. Contemporary New Towns in Asia. Amsterdam: Sun.
  26. Datta A., Shaban A., 2017, eds., MegaUrbanization in the Global South. Fast Cities and new urban utopias of the postcolonial state. London-New York: Routledge.
  27. Kendall P., 2015, «Between big city and authentic village». City, 19, 5: 665-680., 10.1080/13604813.2015.1071116DOI: 10.1080/13604813.2015.1071116
  28. Ebanks G.E., Cheng C., 1990, «China: a unique urbanization model». Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 5: 29-50.
  29. Edensor T., Jayne M., 2012, eds., Urban Theory beyond the West. A world of cities. London-New York: Routledge.
  30. Fan C.C., 1997, «Uneven Development and Beyond: Regional Development Theory in Post-Mao China». International Journal of Urban and Regional Development, 21, 4: 620-639., 10.1111/1468-2427.00105DOI: 10.1111/1468-2427.00105
  31. Fang C., Yu D., 2016, China’s New Urbanization. Developmental Paths, Blueprints and Patterns. Berlin/Beijing: Springer/Science Press.
  32. Fishman R., 1987, Bourgeois Utopias: The Rise and Fall of Suburbia. New York: Basic Books.
  33. Friedmann J., 1986, «The world city hypothesis». Development and Change, 17: 69-83.
  34. Keqiang L., 2013, «Expounds on Urbanization»., 26 May. -- (accessed on: 2017.08.31).
  35. Koolhaas R., Chuihua J.C., Inaba J., Leong S.T., 2002, Great Leap Forward. Cologne: Taschen.
  36. Friedmann J., 2005, China’s urban transition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  37. Lasch C., 1991, The True and Only Heaven: Progress and Its Critics. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
  38. Fu X., 2004, «Limited linkages from growth engines and regional disparities in China». Journal of Comparative Economics, 32, 1: 148-164.
  39. Liang Z., Messner F.S., Huang Y., Chen C., 2017, eds., Confronting the challenges of urbanization in China. Insights from social science perspectives. New York: Routledge.
  40. Lin C.S.G., 1994, «Changing Theoretical Perspectives on Urbanization in Asian Developing Countries». Third World Planning Review, 16: 1-23.
  41. Lin C.S.G., 2007, «Reproducing spaces of Chinese urnanization: New city-based and land-centred urban transformation». Urban Studies, 44, 9: 1827-1855., 10.1080/00420980701426673DOI: 10.1080/00420980701426673
  42. Lin C.S.G., 2011. «Urban China in transformation: Hybrid economy, justaxposed space, and new testing ground for geographical enquiries». Chinese Geographical Sciences, 21, 1: 1-16.
  43. Geddes P., 1915, Cities in evolution: an introduction to the town planning movement and to the study of civics. London: Williams.
  44. Lin Z., 2013, «Building Utopias. China’s emerging new town movement». In: Bharne V. (ed.), The Emerging Asian City: Concomitant Urbanities and Urbanisms. New York: Routledge, 225-233.
  45. Logan R.J., 2008, ed., Urban China in transition. Oxford: Blackwell.
  46. Ma J.C.L., Lin C.S.G., 1993, «Development of towns in China: a case study of Guangdong Province». Population and Development Review, 19, 3: 583-606., 10.2307/2938467DOI: 10.2307/2938467
  47. Gerth K., 2010, As China Goes So Goes the World. How Chinese consumers are transforming everything. New York: Hill and Wang.
  48. Glaeser E., Huang W., Ma Y., Shleifer A., 2017, «A Real Estate Boom with Chinese Characteristics». The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31, 1: 93-116.
  49. Gleeson B., 2014, The Urban Condition. London: Routledge.
  50. Gotmann J., 1961, Megapolis. The urbanized northeastern seaboard of the United States. New York: Twentieth Century Fund.
  51. Greenfield A., 2016, «Where are the world’s newest cities ... and why do they all look the same?». The Guardian, 28 Gennaio.
  52. Gu C., Dennis W.Y., Cook G.I., 2015, «Planning Beijing: socialist city, transitional city, and global city». Urban Geography, 36, 6: 905-926., 10.1080/02723638.2015.1067409DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2015.1067409
  53. Ma J.C.L., 2002, «Urban transformation in China, 1949-2000: a Review and Research Agenda». Environment and planning A, 34, 9: 1545-1569.
  54. Hall P., 1966, The World Cities. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  55. Hall P., 1988, Cities of tomorrow: an intellectual history of urban planning and design in the twentieth century. Oxford: Blackwell.
  56. Massey D., 2005, For Space. London: Sage.
  57. Hall P., Ward C., 1998, Sociable Cities: Legacy of Ebenezer Howard. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
  58. Miller T., 2012, China’s Urban billion The story behind the biggest migration in human history. London: Zed Books.
  59. Harvey D., 1989, «From managerialism to entrepreneurialism: the transformation in urban governance in late capitalism». Geographiska Annaler, 71B: 3-18., 10.2307/490503DOI: 10.2307/490503
  60. Moser S., 2014, New Cities: Opportunities, Visions and Challenges. Cityquest kaec Forum 2013: Summary and Analysis Report. -- (accessed on: 2017.08.31).
  61. Moser S., Swain M., Alkhabbaz H.M., 2015, «King Abdullah Economic City: Engineering Saudi Arabia’s post-oil future». Cities, 45: 71-80.
  62. National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2014, Statistical Communiqué of the People’s Republic of China on the 2013. National Bureau of Statistics of China National Economic and Social Development. 24 febbraio. -- html (accessed on: 2017.08.31).
  63. Harvey D., 1997, «The new urbanism and the communitarian trap». Harvard Design Magazine, 1.
  64. Harvey D., 2005, A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  65. Naughton B., 2017, «Is China Socialist?». The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31, 1: 3-24.
  66. Nolan P., 2004, China at the Crossroads. Oxford: Polity Press.
  67. Ong A., 2011, «Introduction: Worlding Cities, or the Art of Being Global». In: Roy, Ong, 2011: 1-26.
  68. Ong H.L., 2014, «State-led urbanization in China: Skyscrapers, land revenue and ‘concentrated villages’». The China Quarterly, 217: 162–179.
  69. Pow C.P., 2012, «China exceptionalism? Unbounding narratives on urban China». In: Edensor, Jayne, 2012: 47-64.
  70. Harvey D., 2012, Rebel Cities. From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution. London-New York: Verso.
  71. Pow C.P., 2015, «Urban dystopia and epistemologies of hope». Progress in Human Geography, 39, 4: 464-485., 10.1177/0309132514544805DOI: 10.1177/0309132514544805
  72. Ren X., 2011, Building globalization: Transnational architecture production in urban China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  73. Herbert W.C., Murray J.M., 2015, «Building from Scratch: New Cities, Privatized Urbanism and the Spatial Restructuring of Johannesburg after Apartheid». International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 39, 3: 471-494., 10.1111/1468-2427.12180DOI: 10.1111/1468-2427.12180
  74. Ren X., 2013, Urban China. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  75. Robinson J., 2006, Ordinary Cities: between Modernity and Development. London: Routledge.
  76. Robinson J., 2013, «The urban now: Theorising cities beyond the new». European Journal of Cultural Studies, 16, 6: 659-677., 10.1177/1367549413497696DOI: 10.1177/1367549413497696
  77. Rodríguez-Pose A., Richard S., 2008, «From identity to the economy: analysing the evolution of the decentralisation discourse». Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 26, 1: 54-72.
  78. Rodwin L., 1956, The British New Towns Policy. Problems and Implications. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  79. Rowe G.P., Forsyth A., Kan H.Y., 2016, China’s Urban Communities: Concepts, Contexts, and Well-Being. Basel: Birkhäuser.
  80. Roy A., 2009, «The 21st-century metropolis: new geographies of theory». Regional Studies, 43, 6: 819–830., 10.1080/00343400701809665DOI: 10.1080/00343400701809665
  81. Roy A., 2016, «What is urban about critical urban theory?». Urban Geography, 37, 6: 810-823., 10.1080/02723638.2015.1105485DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2015.1105485
  82. Roy A., Ong A., 2011, eds., Worlding cities. Asian Experiments and the Art of Being Global. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  83. Sassen S., 1991, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  84. Schindler S., 2017, «Towards a paradigm of Southern urbanism». City, 21, 1: 47-64., 10.1080/13604813.2016.1263494DOI: 10.1080/13604813.2016.1263494
  85. Scott J.A., 2001, ed., Global city-regions: trends, theory, policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  86. Scott J.A., Agnew J., Soja W.E., Storper M., 2001, «Global City-Regions». In: Scott, 2001: 11-30.
  87. Scott J.A., Storper M., 2015, «The nature of cities. The scope and limits of urban theory». International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 39, 1: 1-15., 10.1111/1468-2427.12134DOI: 10.1111/1468-2427.12134
  88. Secchi B., 2005, La città del ventesimo secolo. Roma-Bari: Laterza.
  89. Shao Z., 2015, The New Urban Area Development: A Case Study in China. Berlin: Springer.
  90. She X., 2017, «Political Economy of State-Led Urban Entrepreneurialism. The case of Affordable Housing Regimes in China». In: Liang et al., 2017: 29-146.
  91. Shen J., Wu F., 2017, «The Suburb as a Space of Capital Accumulation: The Development of New Towns in Shanghai, China». Antipode, 49, 3: 761–780.
  92. Shen S.X.H., 2015a, «Special Issues - New Silk Road Project – Part 1». East Asia, 32, 1.
  93. Shen S.X.H., 2015b, «Special Issues - New Silk Road Project – Part 2.» East Asia, 32, 2.
  94. Shepard W., 2015, Ghost cities of China. London: Zed Books.
  95. Sheppard E., Helga L., Maringanti A., 2013, «Provincializing global urbanism: a manifesto». Urban Geography, 34, 7: 893-900., 10.1080/02723638.2013.807977DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2013.807977
  96. Sieverts T., 2003, Cities without Cities: An Interpretation of the Zwischenstadt. Spon Press: London.
  97. Smith N., 2002, «New globalism, new urbanism: gentrification as global urban strategy». Antipode, 34, 3: 427–450.
  98. Sorace C., Hurst W., 2016, «China’s Phantom Urbanisation and the Pathology of Ghost Cities». Journal of Contemporary Asia, 46, 2: 304-322., 10.1080/00472336.2015.1115532DOI: 10.1080/00472336.2015.1115532
  99. Strange S., 1998, Chi governa l’economia mondiale? Crisi dello stato e dispersione del potere. Bologna: Il Mulino.
  100. Tan X., 2006, «New Town Policy and Development in China». The Chinese Economy, 43, 3: 47-58.
  101. Taylor R.J., 2015, «The China Dream is an Urban Dream: Assessing the CPC’s National New-Type Urbanization Plan». Journal of Chinese Political Science, 20, 2: 107-120.
  102. Taylor J.P., 2004, World City Network: A Global Urban Analysis. London-New York: Routledge.
  103. Thrift N., 2000, «Not a straight line but a curve, or, cities are not mirrors of modernity». In: Bell D., Haddour A. (eds.), City Visions. Harlow: Pearson, 233-263.
  104. Timberlake M., Dennis W.Y., Ma X., Hao J., 2014, «Global cities with Chinese characteristics». Cities, 41: 162-170.
  105. Tomba L., 2004, «Creating an Urban Middle Class: Social Engineering in Beijing». The China Journal, 51: 1-26., 10.2307/3182144DOI: 10.2307/3182144
  106. Tu W., 1996, «Confucian Traditions in East Asian Modernity». Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 50, 2: 12-39., 10.2307/3824246DOI: 10.2307/3824246
  107. unfpa - United Nations Populations Fund, 2007, State of world population 2007 Unleashing the potential of urban growth. New York: United Nations Population Fund.
  108. un-Habitat, 1996, An urbanizing world. Global report on human settlements 1996. Oxford: Oxford University Press for the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements.
  109. United Nations-Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2014, World economic situation and prospects 2014. New York: United Nations.
  110. Wakeman R., 2016, Practicing Utopia. An Intellectual History of the New Town Movement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  111. Wang H., 2003, China’s New order: Society, Politics and economy in transition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  112. Wang M., Kee P., Gao J., 2014, eds., Transforming Chinese Cities. New York: Routledge. Wang Z., 2014, «The Chinese Dream: Concept and Context». Journal of Chinese Political Science, 19, 1: 1-13.
  113. Webster D., 2002, On the Edge: Shaping the Future of Peri-urban East Asia (Working Paper of the Asian Pacific Research Centre). Stanford: Stanford University.
  114. Wei Y.D., 2015, «Decentralization, marketization and globalization: the triple processes underlying regional development in China». Asian Geographer, 20, 1-2: 7-23., 10.1080/10225706.2001.9684073DOI: 10.1080/10225706.2001.9684073
  115. Williams A., 2017, China’s Urban Revolution. Understanding Chinese Eco-Cities. New York and London: Bloomsbury Academic.
  116. Woodworth M.D., Wallace L.J., 2017, «Seeing ghosts: parsing China’s ‘ghost city’ controversy». Urban Geography, 38, 8., 10.1080/02723638.2017.1288009DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2017.1288009
  117. World Bank; Development Research Center of the State Council, P.R.
  118. China, 2014, Urban China. Toward efficient, inclusive, and sustainable urbanization. Washington DC: World Bank Group.
  119. Wu F., 2006, ed., Globalization and the Chinese City. London: Routledge.
  120. Wu F., 2007, ed., China’s Emerging Cities. The Making of New Urbanism. London: Routledge.
  121. Wu F., 2009, «Neo-urbanism in the making under China’s market transition ». City, 13, 418-431., 10.1080/13604810903298474DOI: 10.1080/13604810903298474
  122. Wu F., 2015, Planning for Growth: Urban and Regional Planning in China. New York-London: Routledge.
  123. Wu F., 2016a, «China’s Emergent City-Region Governance: A New Form of State Spatial Selectivity through State-orchestrated Rescaling». International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 40, 6: 1134-1151., 10.1111/1468-2427.12437DOI: 10.1111/1468-2427.12437
  124. Wu F., 2016b, «Emerging Chinese Cities: Implications for Global Urban Studies». The Professional Geographer, 68, 2: 338-348., 10.1080/00330124.2015.1099189DOI: 10.1080/00330124.2015.1099189
  125. Wu W., 1999, Pioneering Economic Reform in China’s Special Economic Zones. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.
  126. Xu J., Yeh A., 2010, «Planning mega-city regions in China: rationales and policies». Progress in Planning, 73: 17-22.
  127. Yeoh K.K.E., 2010a, «Changing China: Three Decades of Social Transformation ». International Journal of China Studies, 1, 2: 239-308.
  128. Yeoh K.K.E., 2010b, «Ethnoregional Disparity, Ethnoterritoriality and Peripheral Nationalism: Socioracial Dilemmas in Contemporary China». International Journal of China Studies, 1, 2: 569-644.
  129. Yeung Y., Lee J., Kee G., 2009, «China’s Special Economic Zones at 30». Eurasian Geography and Economics, 50, 2: 222-240., 10.2747/1539-7216.50.2.222DOI: 10.2747/1539-7216.50.2.222
  130. Yuen B., 1996, «Creating the Garden City: the Singapore Experience». Urban Studies, 33, 6: 955-970., 10.1080/00420989650011681DOI: 10.1080/00420989650011681
  131. Yusuf S., Kaoru N., 2008, «Two Decades of Reform: The Changing Organization Dynamics of Chinese Industrial Firms». In: Logan, 2008: 27-47.
  132. Zhang L., LeGates R., Zhao M., 2016, Understanding China’s Urbanization: The Great Demographic, Spatial, Economic and Social Transformation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  133. Zhou Y., Logan R.J., 2008, «Growth on the Edge: The New Chinese Metropolis ». In: Logan, 2008: 140-160.
  134. Zhu J., 2009, Architecture of Modern China: A Historical Critique. New York: Routledge.

Michele Bonino, Francesca Governa, Angelo Sampieri, in "TERRITORIO" 85/2018, pp. 21-39, DOI:10.3280/TR2018-085003


FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche