Click here to download

Stress and parenting skills in judicial separation. Analysis of protective and risk factors in parental relationships
Journal Title: RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA  
Author/s: Daniela Pajardi, Monia Vagni, Valeria Giostra, Viviana La Spada, Tiziana Maiorano 
Year:  2018 Issue: Language: Italian 
Pages:  20 Pg. 693-712 FullText PDF:  224 KB
DOI:  10.3280/RIP2018-004009
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


Parental stress is a psycho-social dimension of the parent-child relationship and is influenced by the context in which the relationship is experienced. Separa-tion can affect the functionality/dysfunctionality of parenting skills and the level and quality of perceived stress. The main goal of the present study is to investiga-te the possible predictive effect of parental stress perceived during judicial sepa-ration on parental behaviors of risk and/or psychological prejudice. On a sample of 22 parental couples involved in psychological expert witness, the PSI (Paren-ting Stress Index; Abidin, 1986) was administered in order to analyze parental stress level that takes into account the representation that the parent has of his/her child and of the relationship with him/her. The results reported in the PSI will be analyzed in relation to the evaluation of parental skills conducted with the APS-I tool (Assessment of Parental Skills Interview; Camerini et al., 2007). The results show how high parental stress, especially when perceived in the relation-ship with the child (PCDI scale), tends to assume a predictive effect of risk of emotional abuse and/or emotional and psychological neglect. Parental stress can be an interesting key to understanding dynamics between parents and children and parenting skills, useful both from a clinical point of view and in expert wit-ness in court.
Keywords: Parental conflict, parental stress, expert witness, parenting skills.

  1. Abidin, R.R., Austin, W.G., & Flens, J.R. (2013). The forensic uses and limitations of the Parenting Stress Index. In R.P. Archer & E. M.A. Wheeler (Eds.), Forensic uses of clinical assessment instruments (pp. 346-379). New York: Routledge.
  2. Abidin, R.R. (1986). Parenting stress index (2nd ed.). Charlottesville, Va: Pediatric Psychology Press.
  3. Abidin, R.R. (1995). Parenting stress index: Professional manual, 3rd ed. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
  4. Anthony, K.K., Gil, K.M., & Schanberg, L.E. (2003). Parental perceptions of child vulnerability in children with chronic illness. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 28, 185-190.
  5. Archer, R.P., Buffington-Vollum, J.K., Stredny, R.V., & Handel, R.W. (2006). A survey of psychological test use patterns among forensic psychologists. Journal of personality assessment, 87(1), 84-94.
  6. Berkout, O.V., & Kolko, D.J. (2016). Understanding Child Directed Caregiver Aggression: An Examination of Characteristics and Predictors Associated with Perpetration. Child Abuse & Neglect, 56, 44-53.
  7. Bigras, M., & LaFreniere, P.J. (1994). L’influence du risque psychosocial, des conflits conjugaux et du stress parental sur la qualite de l’ interaction mere-garcon et mere-fille. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 26, 280-297.
  8. Black, D.A., Heyman, R.E., & Smith-Slep, A.M. (2001). Risk factors for child physical abuse. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 6, 121-188., DOI: 10.1016/S1359-1789(00)00021-5
  9. Camerini, G.B., Volpini, L., & Lopez, G. (2011). Manuale di valutazione delle capacità genitoriali. Rimini: Maggioli Editore.
  10. Camisasca, E., Miragoli, S., & Di Blasio, P. (2013). L’attaccamento modera le reazioni dei bambini esposti al conflitto genitoriale? Verifica di un modello integrato. Psicologia Clinica dello Sviluppo, 17, 479-500., DOI: 10.1449/76229
  11. Camisasca, E., Miragoli, S., & Di Blasio, P. (2016). Conflittualità genitoriale e sintomatologia da stress post-traumatico nei figli: uno studio esplorativo. Maltrattamento e abuso all’infanzia, 2, 139-149.
  12. Choi, Y.Y., Kim J.H., & Cho S.M. (2002). The effect of ADHD child mother’s depressive mood, parenting stress, and parenting related attitude on parenting behavior. Journal of the Korean Acadamy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13, 153-162.
  13. Colletti, C.J., Wolfe-Christensen, C., Carpentier, M.Y., Page, M.C., McNall-Knapp, R.Y., Meyer, W.H., Chaney, J.M., & Mullins, L.L. (2008). The relationship of parental overprotection, perceived vulnerability, and parenting stress to behavioral, emotional, and social adjustment in children with cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 51(2), 269-74.
  14. Coyle, D.D., Roggman, L.A., & Newland, L.A. (2002). Stress, maternal depression, and negative mother–infant interactions in relation to infant attachment. Infant Mental Health Journal: Official Publication of The World Association for Infant Mental Health, 23(1‐2), 145-163.
  15. Crnic, K.A., & Greenberg, M.T. (1990). Minor parenting stress with young children. Child Development, 61, 1628-1637., DOI: 10.2307/1130770
  16. Emerson, E., Hatton, C., Llewellyn, G., Blacker, J., & Graham, H. (2006). Socio-economic position, household composition, health status and indicators of the well‐being of mothers of children with and without intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(12), 862-873.
  17. Eom, E.J., Park, B.K., Doh, H.S., & Nichiwaki, R. (2014). The relationships between parenting stress, parenting sense of competence, and parenting behavior in Korean and Japanese mothers of early school-aged children. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 35(3), 93-118., DOI: 10.5723/KJCS.2014.35.3.93
  18. Fornari, U. (2015). Trattato di Psichiatria Forense. Torino: Utet Giuridica.
  19. Gatta, M., Balottin, L., Mannarini, S., Birocchi, V., Del Col, L., & Battistella, P.A. (2016). Stress genitoriale e psicopatologia in età evolutiva. Uno studio caso-controllo. Rivista di Psichiatria, 51(6), 251-259., DOI: 10.1708/2596.26726
  20. Guarino, A., Di Blasio, P., D’Alessio, M., Camisasca, E., & Serantoni, G. (2008) Parenting Stress Index SF. Firenze: Organizzazioni Speciali.
  21. Hakvoort, E.M., Bos, H.M., Van Balen, F., & Hermanns, J.M. (2012). Spillover between mothers’ postdivorce relationships: The mediating role of parenting stress. Personal Relationships, 19(2), 247-254.
  22. Han, J.W., & Lee, H. (2018). Effect of Parenting Stress and Controlling Parenting Attitudes on problems behavior of Preschool Children: Latent Growth Model Analysis. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 48(1), 109-122.
  23. Haskett. M.E., Ahern, L.S., Ward, C.S., & Allaire, J.C. (2006). Factor structure and validity of the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35, 302-312.
  24. Hitchcock, D.L. (2003). A construct validity study of the Marschank Interaction Method Rating System with adolescent mother-child dyads. Dissertation Abstract International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 64(6-B), 2977., DOI: 10.1037/1555-6824.17.1.24
  25. Holden, G.W., & Ritchie, K.L. (1991). Linking extreme marital discord, child rearing and child behavior problems: evidence from battered woman. Child Development, 62, 311-327.
  26. Hong, Y.J., & Soon-Hyung, Y. (2017). Actor and partner effects of mothers’ and fathers’ parenting stress and family cohesion and flexibility on warm parenting behavior. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 38(2), 37-50.
  27. In-Sook, L., & Jung-Hee, J. (2016). Effects of parenting stress in North Korean Refugee behavior. Child Health Nursing Research, 22(3), 182-189.
  28. Ispa, J.M., Fine, M.A., Halgunseth, L.C., Harper, S., Robinson, J., Boyce, L., & Brady-Smith, C. (2004). Maternal intrusiveness, maternal warmth, and mother-toddler relationship outcomes: variations across low-income ethnic and acculturation groups. Child Development, 75(6), 1613-1631.
  29. Jarvis, P.A., & Creasey, G.L. (1991). Parental stress, coping and attachment in families with an eighteen-month-old infant. Infant Behavior and Development, 14, 383-395., DOI: 10.1016/0163-6383(91)90029-R
  30. Kim, G.Y., & Shin, H.Y. (2013). A study on variables related to paternal parenting behavior: Father involvement, parenting stress, and parenting self-efficacy. Journal of Korean Child Care and Education, 9(2), 191-213.
  31. Kim, M.S., & Moon, H.J. (2005). Relationship between parenting stress and parenting efficacy on parenting behaviors in mother with young children, Family and Environment Research, 43(8), 25-35.
  32. Lavee, Y., Sharlin, S., & Katz, R. (1996). The effect of parenting stress on marital quality: an integrated mother-father model. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 114-135., DOI: 10.1177/019251396017001007
  33. Lee, H., & Han, J.W. (2017). The effects of parents’ self-esteem and parenting attitudes on child’s social competence: Dyadic data analysis. Asia-pacific Journal of Multimedia Services Convergent with Art, Humanities, and Sociology, 7(12), 807-817.
  34. Lyons-Ruth, K., Lyubchik, A., Wolfe, R., & Bronfman, E. (2002). Parental depression and child attachment: hostile and helpless profiles of parent and child behaviour among families at risk. In S.H. Goodman & I.H. Gotlib (Eds.), Children of depressed parents: mechanism of risk and implications for treatment (pp. 89-120).  Washington DC: American psychological Association., DOI: 10.1037/10449-004.
  35. McPherson, A.V., Lewis, K.M., Lynn, A.E., Haskett, M.E., & Behrend, T.S. (2008). Predictors of parenting stress for abusive and nonabusive mothers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 18, 61-69.
  36. Miller, R., & Gondoli, D. (2017, April). Mothers’ Parenting Stress Mediates the Relationship between Co-Parental Conflict and Parenting Behavior. Poster session presented to the conference of Society for Research in Child Development, Austin, Texas., DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.25214.69449
  37. Moore, C.G., Probst, J.C., Tompkins, M., Cuffe, S., & Martin, A.B. (2007). The prevalence of violent disagreements in US family: effects of residence, race/ethnicity, and parental stress. Pediatrics, 119, 68-76.
  38. Nanzer, N. (2016). Manuale di psicoterapia centrata sulla genitorialità. Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
  39. Osborne, L.A., & Reed, P. (2010). Stress and self-perceived parenting behaviors of parents of children with autistic spectrum conditions. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4, 405-414.
  40. Park, H.S. (2015). The Effect of Married Migrant Women’s Marital Conflict and Parenting Stress on their Parenting Behaviors. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 24(3), 359-370.
  41. Patterson, G.R. (1982). A social learning approach to family intervention: III. Coercitive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
  42. Pianta, R., Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L.A. (1990). Maternal stress and children’s development: prediction of school outcomes and identification of protective factors. In J. Rolf, A. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. Neuchterlein, & S. Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology (215-235). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  43. Priel, B., & Besser, A. (2000). Adult attachment styles, early relationships, antenatal attachment, and perceptions of infant temperament: A study of first-time mothers. Personal Relationships, 7, 291-310.
  44. Quinnell, F.A., & Bow, J.N. (2001). Psychological tests used in child custody evaluations. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 19(4), 491-501.
  45. Repetti, R.L., & Wood, J. (1997). Families accommodating to chronic stress: unintended and unnoticed processes. In B.H. Gottlied (Ed.), Coping with chronic stress (pp. 191-220). New York: Plenum., DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4757-9862-3_7
  46. Ritchie, K.L., & Holden, G.W. (1998). Parenting stress in low income battered and community women: effects on parenting behavior. Early Education and Development, 1, 97-112.
  47. Robinson, M., & Neece, C L. (2015). Marital satisfaction, parental stress, and child behavior problems among parents of young children with developmental delays. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 8(1), 23-46., DOI: 10.1080/19315864.2014.994247.
  48. Smith, T.B., Oliver, M.N., & Innocenti, M.S. (2001). Parenting stress in families of children with disabilities. American journal of orthopsychiatry, 71(2), 257-261., DOI: 10.1037//0002-9432.71.2.257
  49. Sutherland, K.E., Altenhofen, S., & Biringen, Z. (2012). Emotional availability during mother-child interactions in divorcing and intact married families. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 53, 126-141., DOI: 10.1080/10502556.2011.651974
  50. Teti, D.M., Nakagawa, M., Das, R., & Wirth, O. (1991). Security of attachment between preschoolers and their mothers: Relations among social interaction, parenting stress, and mother’s sorts of the Attachment Q-Set. Developmental Psychology, 27(3), 440-447., DOI: 10.1037//0012-1649.27.3.440.
  51. Thomasgard, M., & Metz, W.P. (1997). Parental overprotection and its relation to perceived child vulnerability. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 67, 330–335.
  52. Verrocchio, M.C., Marchetti, D., & Fulcheri, M. (2015). Perceived parental functioning, self-esteem, and psychological distress in adults whose parents are separated/divorced. Frontiers in psychology, 6, 1760.
  53. Visentin, G. (2003). Definizione e funzioni della genitorialità. -- Testo disponibile al sito http://www.genitorialita.it/documenti/le-funzioni-della-genitorialita/ in data 24/07/2018.
  54. Volpini, L. (2011). Valutare le competenze genitoriali: teorie e tecniche. Roma: Carocci Faber.
  55. Webster-Stratton, C. (1988). Mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of child deviance: Roles of parent and child behaviors and parent adjustment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 909-915.
  56. Webster-Stratton, C. (1990). Stress: A potential disruptor of parent perceptions and family interactions. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 302-312.
  57. Willinger, U., Diendorfer-Radner, G., Willnauer, R., Jorgl, G., & Hager, V. (2005). Parenting stress and bonding. Behavioral Medicine, 31, 63-69.

Daniela Pajardi, Monia Vagni, Valeria Giostra, Viviana La Spada, Tiziana Maiorano, Stress and parenting skills in judicial separation. Analysis of protective and risk factors in parental relationships in "RICERCHE DI PSICOLOGIA " 4/2018, pp. 693-712, DOI:10.3280/RIP2018-004009

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content