Click here to download

Pricing products’ negative externalities at end-of-life using eco-modulation: Discussion from case studies
Journal Title: ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT 
Author/s: Eugénie Joltreau 
Year:  2018 Issue: Language: English 
Pages:  24 Pg. 149-172 FullText PDF:  463 KB
DOI:  10.3280/EFE2018-001007
(DOI is like a bar code for intellectual property: to have more infomation:  clicca qui   and here 


Does an efficient and flexible mechanism exist to address negative externalities of products, or are we doomed to grow the list of product standards? In this paper, I open the discussion whether eco-modulation in the framework of collective extended producer responsibility (EPR) could be able to spur the design of more environmentally sound products at end of life. In Europe, EPR for final products has mainly been implemented in the form of collective systems, where producers pay a fee per quantity of items placed on the market to a central organisation. This compliance fee represents the average cost of treating waste for a given product stream. Since waste management costs are averaged across producers, such collective EPR schemes have been criticised for hindering individual internalisation of products’ end-of-life externalities. To deal with these critiques, French public authorities have imposed eco-modulation to EPR collective systems. Eco-modulation consists in penalising or rewarding individual design choices of producers, using financial incentives. The European Commission is now planning to revise its directive Dir. 1994/62/EC to provide guiding principles on eco-modulation for packaging for all EPR organisations across Europe. In general, eco-modulation is becoming increasingly relevant on the European scene. Therefore, I aim at reflecting on the efficiency of eco-modulation in addressing products’ negative externalities at end-of-life, by analysing early feedbacks and data from French EPR systems.
Keywords: Waste management, eco-design, environmental policy.
Jel Code: Q53, Q55, Q58

  1. Eco TLC (2012). Rapport d’activité 2012. -- http://www.ecotlc.fr/ressources/Documents_site/EcoTLC-RA2012_web.pdf.
  2. ADEME (2013a). Emballages ménagers. French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME).
  3. ADEME (2013b). Textiles d’habillement, linge de maison et chaussures des ménages. French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME).
  4. ADEME (2014). Equipements électriques et électroniques. Rapport annuel 2014. French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME).
  5. ADEME (2016). Tableau de bord des déchets d’emballages ménagers. French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME).
  6. ADEME (2018). Rapport annuel de la filière des Déchets d’Éléments d’Ameublement (DEA). ADEME, Deloitte Développement Durable (Véronique MONIER, Manuel TRARIEUX, Alexis LEMEILLET, Vincent ESPERANCE).
  7. Brouillat E., Oltra V. (2012). Extended producer responsibility instruments and innovation in eco-design: An exploration through a simulation model. Ecological Economics 83(Supplement C): 236-245.
  8. Calcott P., Walls M. (2005). Waste, recycling, and “Design for Environment”: Roles for markets and policy instruments. Resource and Energy Economics, 27(4): 287-305. -- http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0928765505000102.
  9. Didier E., Sittler E. (2014). Mieux concevoir les produits pour mieux valoriser les déchets. Rapport d’information fait au nom de la Commission du développement durable, des infrastructures, de l’équipement et de l’aménagement du territoire. Technical report. -- https://www.senat.fr/rap/r13-143/r13-143.html.
  10. Dir. 005/32/EC. 2005. “European Parliament and Council Directive 2005/32/EC of 6 July 2005 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-using products and amending Council Directive 92/42/EEC and Directives 96/57/EC and 2000/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council”. -- https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2005:191:0029:0058:en:PDF.
  11. Dir. 1994/62/EC. 1994. “European Parliament and Council Directive 94/62/EC of 20 December 1994 on packaging and packaging waste” -- http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX:31994L0062.
  12. Dir. 2008/98/EC. 2008. “Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives” -- http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A32008L0098.
  13. Dir. 2012/19/EU. 2012. “Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)” -- http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32012L0019.
  14. Eco-Emballages (2014). Guide de la déclaration.
  15. Eco-Emballages (2015a). Guide de la déclaration.
  16. Eco-Emballages (2015b). Rapport annuel.
  17. Eco-Emballages (2016a). Guide de la déclaration.
  18. Eco-Emballages (2016b). Le dispositif emballages perturbateurs du recyclage.
  19. Eco-mobilier (2018). Guide des éco-participations. -- https://www.eco-mobilier.fr/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/guide_eco_participations_018_v11.pdf.
  20. Eco-systèmes (2018). “Eco-systèmes contribution scale. Household EEE. Eco- participation amounts applicable as from August 15th 2018”. -- https://www.eco-systemes.fr/uploads/documents/hidden/English%20eco-fee%20scale/ContributionScale_OpenScope_2018.pdf.
  21. Eco TLC (2016). Rapport d’activité 2016: Bilan à mi-parcours de l’agrément 2014-2019. -- http://www.ecotlc.fr/ressources/Documents_site/RA_2016_EcoTLC_web.pdf.
  22. Eco TLC (2017). Rapport d’activité 2017. -- http://www.ecotlc.fr/ressources/Documents_site/RA_2017_Eco_TLC_web.pdf.
  23. Eco TLC (2018). Eco-modulation durabilité textile. Modalités de déclaration. -- http://www.ecotlc.fr/ressources/Documents_site/Eco_Modulation_durabilite_textile_pdf
  24. Ecofolio (2016). Guide de la déclaration -- https://www.ecofolio.fr/guide-declaration-sur-mespapiers.
  25. Ecofolio (2017a). Comité de l’écoconception et de l’éco-modulation. Private document sent by ADEME.
  26. Ecofolio (2017b). Communiqué de presse d’Ecofolio, Paris le 5 juillet 2017: Eco-conception des papiers en forte progression: succès de la stratégie Ecofolio et implication croissante des entreprises. -- https://www.ecofolio.fr/sites/default/files/asset/document/communique_ecofolio_-_succes_du_bareme_eco-differencie_-_5_juillet_2017_0.pdf.
  27. European Commission (2014). Development of Guidance on Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR).
  28. European Commission (2018). Communication from the Commission to the European Par- liament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee to the Regions. A European Strategy for Plastics in a Circular Economy. SWD(2018) 16 final.
  29. Joltreau, E. (2018). Waste management policies and incentives for upstream Design-for- Environment. Evidence from Extended Producer Responsibility in the EU. Working paper.
  30. Legifrance (2018). Code de l’environnement. -- https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCode.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006074220. Version consolidée au 5 juillet 2018.
  31. Ministry of the Environment (2014). Arrêté du 3 avril 2014 relatif à la procédure d’agrément et portant cahier des charges des organismes ayant pour objet de contribuer au traite- ment des déchets issus des produits textiles d’habillement, du linge de maison et des chaussures. -- http://www.bulletin-officiel.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/fiches/BO20149/met_20140009_0100_0002.pdf.
  32. Neuhoff K., Chiappinelli O., Bataille C., Haußner M., Ismer R., Joltreau E., Jürgens I., Piantieri C., Richstein J., Sartor O., Singhal P., Stede J. (2018). Filling gaps in the policy package to decarbonise production and use of materials. Climate Strategies and DIW Berlin.
  33. OCAD3E (2011). Point sur la modulation de la contribution visible.
  34. OCAD3E (2017). Bilan Eco-modulation EEE. Réunion CFREP.
  35. OECD (2001). Extended Producer Responsibility: A Guidance Manual for Governments. OECD Publishing.
  36. OECD (2004). Economic Aspects of Extended Producer Responsibility. OECD Publishing.
  37. OECD (2016). Extended Producer Responsibility: Updated Guidance for Efficient Waste Management. OECD Publishing.
  38. Røine K., Lee C.-Y. (2006). With a Little Help from EPR?: Technological Change and Innovation in the Norwegian Plastic Packaging and Electronics Sectors. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 10(1-2): 217-237., 10.1162/108819806775545448DOI: 10.1162/108819806775545448
  39. van Rossem C., Tojo N., Lindhqvist T. (2006). Extended Producer Responsibility: An examination of its impact on innovation and greening products. Greenpeace International. -- http://lup.lub.lu.se/record/956128.
  40. Roussel F. (2010). Le bonus/malus sur l’éco-contribution des équipements électriques entre en vigueur. -- https://www.actu-environnement.com/ae/news/deee-ecocontribution-bonus-malus-equipements-electriques-10573.php4.
  41. Sachs N. (2006). Planning the Funeral at the Birth: Extended Producer Responsibility in the European Union and the United States. Harvard Environmental Law Review 30.
  42. Valdelia (2017). Barème 2017 de l’éco-contribution par famille et sous- famille Valdelia. -- https://www.valdelia.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Barème-éco-contribution-2017.pdf.
  43. Vanegas P., Peeters J.R., Cattrysse D., Tecchio P., Ardente F., Mathieux F., Dewulf W., Duflou J.R. (2018). Ease of disassembly of products to support circular economy strategies. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 135: 323-334. Sustainable Resource Management and the Circular Economy.
  44. Vernier, J. (2018). Les filières REP. Responsabilité élargie des producteurs en matière de prévention et de gestion des déchets générés par leurs produits. -- https://www.ecologique-solidaire.gouv.fr/economie-circulaire-brune-poirson-et-delphine-geny-stephann-recoivent-rapport-jacques-vern.
  45. Watkins, E., S. Gionfra, J-P. Schweitzer, M. Pantzar, Janssens C. and P. ten Brink. 2017. EPR in the EU Plastics Strategy and the Circular Economy: A focus on plastic packaging. -- https://ieep.eu.

Eugénie Joltreau, in "ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT" 1/2018, pp. 149-172, DOI:10.3280/EFE2018-001007

   

FrancoAngeli is a member of Publishers International Linking Association a not for profit orgasnization wich runs the CrossRef service, enabing links to and from online scholarly content