Ernst Bernhard, the originator of Jungian psychotherapy in Italy, starting in the sum-mer of 1944 worked continuously in Rome, becoming a spiritual guide and a charis-matic figure for many prominent intellectuals. His internment in Southern Italy during the Second World War is a historical fact known for some time: he himself talks about it in Mitobiografia (1969), the volume edited by his pupil Hélène Erba-Tissot. However, little is known about the actual substance of his life during that internment and what were the dynamics of his sudden return to Rome, just ten months after the arrest. In particular, it is seldom highlighted that he was not only incarcerated in a concentra-tion camp (as he himself had implied), but also confined to an isolated village, and that his liberation was not exactly, as favored by the orientalist Giuseppe Tucci, the "rescue" of a Jew threatened with deportation to a German Lager - a version of the sto-ry recounted dramatically on several occasions. This essay aims at shedding light upon these issues. For this purpose, the analysis relies in particular on the corre-spondence between Bernhard and his companion - Dora Friedländer - during the months of his internment (published in 2011), and on the unpublished documentation found by the author at the Archivio Centrale dello Stato in Rome.
Keywords: Ernst Bernhard, Fascist civil internment, exile in Italy, foreign Jews and the Fascist re-gime, racial laws and civil mobilization in the Second World War, Italian concentration camps