Henry Dunant was a witness of the shocking scenario of Solferino and San Martino battles. Dunant denounced the tragedy of so many wounded soldiers. Our paper shows the different phases that led to the European creation of Relief Committees. Many Italians contributed to the birth of the "Committee of the Italian Association for injured and sick soldiers in wartime", which was called Italian Red Cross Association, in June 1864. Cesare Castiglioni, the president of the Italian Medical Association, and Felice Baroffio, a doctor member of the military and diplomatic force, contributed to the development of the international humanitarian law. We also take in consideration the organization of the Association, as well as the role of civilian volunteers who took part to the "third war of independence" (1866). Four "Squads" were prepared for those battles: each Squads had a different destiny. This was the "baptism" of the Italian Red Cross. The Association members took care of wounded people and sorted the aid received. This first field experience was well accepted not only by the population, but also by the Italian Government.
Keywords: Dunant, Geneva, Italian Red Cross, Castiglioni, Baroffio, Squad.