Clicca qui per scaricare

Stereotipi e metastereotipi di genere. Un confronto intergenerazionale nel contesto del Sud Italia
Titolo Rivista: PSICOLOGIA DI COMUNITA’ 
Autori/Curatori: Terri Mannarini, Alessandra Manfreda, Margherita Albanese 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2019 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  18 P. 75-92 Dimensione file:  317 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PSC2019-002006
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 


Lo studio indaga il contenuto degli stereotipi e dei metastereotipi di genere in un campione di comodo di 622 donne del Sud Italia: giovani (N=228, 20-39 anni); adulte (N=227, 40-55 anni); mature (N=167, 56-87 anni). Sulla base del Modello del Contenuto dello Stereotipo e della teoria dei ruoli sociali, sono state individuate le variazioni nel contenuto degli stereotipi e dei metastereotipi nei tre gruppi di età. I risultati indicano che lo stereotipo tende ad assumere caratteristiche di maggior competenza e di minor calore con il crescere dell’età dei soggetti e l’assunzione di ruoli lavorativi. La discrepanza tra stereotipi (positivi) e metastereotipi (negati-vi) è interpretata come il risultato di una strategia di creatività sociale volta al mantenimento di una buona immagine di sé.


Keywords: Stereotipi di genere, metastereotipi, modello del contenuto dello stereotipo, teo-ria dei ruoli sociali, auto-stereotipizzazione selettiva, Sud Italia.

  1. Athenstaedt, U. (2003). On the content and structure of the gender role self-concept: Including gender-stereotypical behaviors in addition to traits. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27, 309-318., DOI: 10.1111/1471-6402.0011
  2. Bem, S. L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42(2), 155-162.
  3. Biernat, M., Vescio, T. K., & Green, M. L. (1996). Selective self-stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(6), 1194-1209.
  4. Ciavolino, E. (2013). Valutazione delle dimissioni delle lavoratrici madri. I Quaderni regionali di Parità, VII. Retrieved from http://siba-ese.unisalento.it/index.php/reportparita2013/issue/view/1191
  5. De Piccoli, N., & Rollero, C., (2010). Differenze e disuguaglianze di genere tra Nord e Sud Italia. Attualità di uno stereotipo. Psicologia di comunità, 2, 65-74. 10.3280/PSC2010-002007
  6. Diekman, A. B, & Eagly, A. H. (2000). Stereotypes as dynamic constructs: Women and men of the past, present, and future. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1171-1188., DOI: 10.1177/014616720026200
  7. Diekman, A. B., Eagly, A. H., Mladinic, A., & Ferreira, M. C. (2005). Dynamic stereotypes about women and men in Latin America and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(2), 209-226., DOI: 10.1177/002202210427290
  8. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Diekman, A. B. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: A current appraisal. In T. Eckes & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), The developmental social psychology of gender (pp. 123-174). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  9. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C. (2004). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: Implications for the partner preferences of women and men. In A. H. Eagly, A. E. Beall, & R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Psychology of Gender (2nd ed., pp. 269-295). New York, NY: Guilford.
  10. Eckes, T. (1994). Explorations in gender cognition: Content and structure of female and male subtypes. Social Cognition, 12(1), 37-60.
  11. Eckes, T. (2002). Paternalistic and envious gender stereotypes: Testing predictions from the Stereotype Content Model. Sex Roles, 47(3-4), 99-114., DOI: 10.1023/A:102102092071
  12. Ellemers, N. (2018). Gender stereotypes. Annual Review of Psychology, 69, 1-24.
  13. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., & Glick P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social perception: Warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(2), 77-83.
  14. Fiske, S. T. (2010). Venus and Mars or Down to Earth: Stereotypes and Realities of Gender Differences. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(6), 688-692., DOI: 10.1177/174569161038876
  15. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878-902.
  16. Frey, F. E., & Troop, L. R. (2006). Being seen as individuals versus as group members: Extending research on metaperception to intergroup contexts. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 265-280.
  17. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (2001). An ambivalent alliance: Hostile and benevolent sexism as complementary justifications for gender inequality. American Psychologist, 56(2), 109-118., DOI: 10.1037//0003-066X.56.2.10
  18. Gustafsonn Sendén, M., Klysing, A., Lindqvist, A., & Renström, E. A. (2019). The (not so) changing man: Dynamic gender stereotypes in Sweden. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 37.
  19. Hannover, B. (2000). Development of the self in gendered contexts. In T. Eckes & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), The developmental social psychology of gender (pp. 177–206). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  20. Hentschel, T., Heilman, E. M., & Peus, C. V. (2019). The multiple dimensions of gender stereotypes: A current look at men’s and women’s characterizations of others and themselves. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 11.
  21. Hoffman, R. M. (2001). The measurement of masculinity and femininity: Historical perspective and implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 471-485.
  22. IPRES (2013). Emittenti locali e differenze di genere. La parola alle donne. -- Retrieved from http://www.consparitapuglia.it/index.php?option=com_docman&view=download&alias=303-iv-rapporto-condizione-femminile-2014&category_slug=studi-e-ricerche&Itemid=238
  23. IPRES (2014). IV Rapporto sulla condizione delle donne in Puglia. -- Retrieved from http://www.consparitapuglia.it/index.php?option=com_docman&view=download&alias=301-emittenti-locali-e-differenze-di-genere&category_slug=studi-e-ricerche&Itemid=238
  24. IRIAD (2016). Genere & stereotipi di genere. Uno studio di caso sulle giovani generazioni. -- Retrieved from http://www.archiviodisarmo.it/index.php/it/2013-05-08-17-44-50/rapporti-di-ricerca/archivio-rdr/finish/11/4123
  25. Istat (2011). Stereotipi, rinunce e discriminazioni di genere. -- Retrieved from https://www.istat.it/it/files/2017/11/gli-sterotipi-e-la-discriminazione.pdf
  26. Istat (2015). Come cambia la vita delle donne. -- Retrieved from https://www.istat. it/it/files/2015/12/come-cambia-la-vita-delle-donne.pdf
  27. Istat (2016). I tempi della vita quotidiana. Anno 2014. -- Retrieved from www.istat.it/it/files/2016/11/Report_Tempidivita_2014.pdf?title=Cambiamenti+nei+tempi+di+ vita+-+23%2Fnov%2F2016+-+Report_Tempidivita_2014.pdf
  28. Kan, M. Y., Sullivan, O., & Gershuny, J. (2011). Gender convergence in domestic work: discerning the effects of interactional and institutional barriers from large-scale data. Sociology, 45(2), 234-251., DOI: 10.1177/003803851039401
  29. Latrofa, M., Vaes, J., Cadinu, M., & Carnaghi, A. (2010). The cognitive representation of self-stereotyping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(7), 911-922., DOI: 10.1177/014616721037390
  30. Lockwood, P. (2006). “Someone Like Me can be Successful”: Do College Students Need Same-Gender Role Models? Psychology of Woman Quarterly, 30(1), 36-46.
  31. Murnen, S. K., Greenfield, C., Younger, A., & Boyd, H. (2016). Boys act and girls appear: a content analysis of gender stereotypes associated with characters in children’s popular culture. Sex Roles, 74(1-2), 78-91.
  32. Olson, M., & Martiny, S. E. (2018). Does Exposure to Counterstereotypical Role Models Influence Girls’ and Women’s Gender Stereotypes and Career Choices? A Review of Social Psychological Research. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 2264.
  33. Oswald, D. L., & Chapleau, K. M., (2010). Selective self-stereotyping and women’s self-esteem maintenance. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(8), 918-922.
  34. Oswald, D. L., & Lindstedt, K. (2006). The content and function of gender self-stereotypes: An exploratory investigation. Sex Roles, 54(7-8), 447-458.
  35. Owuamalam, C. K., & Zagefka, H. (2011). Downplaying a compromised social image: The effect of metastereotype valence on social identification. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(4), 528-537.
  36. Reich, S. M., Black, R. W., & Foliaki, T. (2018). Constructing difference: LEGO set narratives promote stereotypic gender roles and play. Sex Roles, 79(5-6), 285-298.
  37. Ruble, D. N., & Martin, C. L. (1998). Gender development. In W. Damon & N. Eisenberg (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development, 5th Ed, Vol. 3 (pp. 933-1016). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  38. Sczesny, S., Bosak, J., Diekman, A. B., & Twenge, J. M. (2008). Dynamics of sex-role stereotypes. In Y. Kashima, K. Fiedler, & P. Freytag (Eds.), Stereotype dynamics. Language-based approaches to the formation, maintenance, and the transformation of stereotypes (pp. 135-161). New York, NY: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  39. Siyanova-Chanturia, A., Warren, P., Pesciarelli, F., & Cacciari, C. (2015). Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1388.
  40. Social Watch (2012). Rapporto Italiano 2012. Retrieved from http://www.socialwatch.it/files/Socialwatch_2012.pdf
  41. Steyer, I. (2014). Gender representations in children’s media and their influence. Campus Wide Information System, 31(2-3), 171-180., DOI: 10.1108/CWIS-11-2013-006
  42. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33-48). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  43. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (2nd ed., pp. 7-24). Chicago: Nelson-Hal.
  44. Vorauer, J. D., Hunter, A. J., Main, K. J., & Roy, S. A. (2010). Meta-stereotype activation: Evidence from indirect measures for specific evaluative concerns experienced by members of dominant groups in intergroup interaction. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78(4), 690-707.
  45. WeWorld-IPSOS (2014). Rosa shocking. -- Retrieved from https://www.weworld.it/pubblicazioni/2014/rosa-shocking/files/assets/common/downloads/publication.pdf
  46. WeWorld-IPSOS (2017). Gli Italiani e la violenza assistita: questa sconosciuta. La percezione della violenza contro le donne e i loro figli. -- Retrieved from https://www.weworld.it/pubblicazioni/2017/Brief-Report-4-2017/files/assets/common/downloads/publication.pdf
  47. Wood, W., & Eagly, A. H. (2015). Two traditions of research on gender identity. Sex Roles, 73(11-12), 461-473.
  48. López-Sáez, M., Morales, J. F, & Lisbona, A. (2008). Evolution of gender stereotypes in Spain: Traits and roles. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11(2), 609-617., DOI: 10.1017/S113874160000461



  1. Impossibile comunicare con Crossref: The remote server returned an error: (500) Internal Server Error.

Terri Mannarini, Alessandra Manfreda, Margherita Albanese, in "PSICOLOGIA DI COMUNITA’" 2/2019, pp. 75-92, DOI:10.3280/PSC2019-002006

   

FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche