Interest toward the human microbiota has recently spread beyond the intestine to include many other organs in which microorganisms can have health implications. The authors focus on the vaginal microbiota and its possible role in the pathogenesis of the most common gynaecologic cancers. Vaginal dysbiosis can be associated with the development of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers; on the other hand, anticancer therapies very often cause dysbiosis, both vaginal and intestinal, thus contributing to many of the side effects of the same therapies. The literature demonstrates the effectiveness of probiotics for cancer prevention and efficacy of therapies in gynaecologic oncology. However, according to the Pnei paradigm, diet regimen as a whole, and stress management remain at the cornerstone of the strategies to maintain the homeostasis of the commensal microbes, that can act as unexpected "friends" of women’s health.
Keywords: Microbiota, Cancer, Gynaecology, Probiotics, Diet, Stress.