The article addresses, from a constitutional law perspective, the issue of new forms of direct intervention by the State in the economy for industrial policy purposes. In the first part, the author returns to the dawn of the privatization process of State-owned shareholdings, which started at the beginning of the last decade of the twentieth century. A second part of the article is dedicated to the analysis of a fundamental instrument of projective intervention by the State in public economic activity, which is Cassa Depositi e Prestiti S.p.A. Finally, a third part of the article addresses a crucial instrument of protective intervention by the State towards public and private economic activity, i.e. special powers, which tend to assume nowadays also a primary industrial policy purpose.
Keywords: Intervento diretto dello Stato nell’economia; Politica industriale; Attività economica pubblica e privata; Cassa depositi e prestiti S.p.A.; Poteri speciali; Direct in-tervention by the State in the economy; Industrial policy; Public and private economic activity; special powers.