The aim of this article is to present a new hypothesis regarding the population size in Bologna between 1290 and 1320. This study proposes approximately 90,000 inhabitants instead of cass 50,000 mentioned in previous works. Through the analysis of four different sources - military enrolment lists, lists of matriculated society members, cadastral surveys, and crop evaluations - this article will demonstrate that the number of inhabitants has been significantly underrated. It will be suggested that the traditional population figures for Bologna have been underestimated due to quantitative manipulations based on historiographical misunderstandings and that, therefore, statistical ratios are inaccurate and should be changed.
Keywords: population, Bologna, lists, historical demography, Middle Ages, 14th century