Our gut houses a huge number of microorganisms, as well as the majority of our immune cells. At the intestinal level, the microbiota and the immune system interact throughout the whole life, by means of a complex communication network at the basis of health and disease. The immune system, whose main function is to control microorganisms, is, in fact, controlled by microbes themselves, thus acting as a regulation system within in the Pnei network. Early life experiences and diet are essential factors for the healthy development of the interactions between microbiota and immunity. In the window of opportunity that opens before birth and receives environmental stimuli, the signals triggered by microbial metabolites play an essential role in the epigenetic regulation of the immune development. Dietary fiber, probiotics and the new frontier of postbiotics are useful tools for immune balance, to be used in prevention strategies and in the integrated treatment of diseases.
Keywords: Microbiota, Immunity, SCFA, Liver, Probiotics, Diet