Clicca qui per scaricare

Psiche, cervello e cuore. Le vie dello stress nella patogenesi della malattia coronarica ischemica
Titolo Rivista: PNEI REVIEW 
Autori/Curatori: Francesco Bottaccioli, Anna Giulia Bottaccioli 
Anno di pubblicazione:  2017 Fascicolo: Lingua: Italiano 
Numero pagine:  18 P. 6-23 Dimensione file:  1243 KB
DOI:  10.3280/PNEI2017-002002
Il DOI è il codice a barre della proprietà intellettuale: per saperne di più:  clicca qui   qui 

Vi è una sempre maggiore evidenza scientifica che lo stress fisico e mentale possono influenzare negativamente la storia naturale della malattia coronarica ischemica. Le prime osservazioni risalgono agli inizi del 1900 quando gli scienziati russi Obraztsov e Strazhesko (1910) in un consesso medico parlarono dei triggers emozionali nella patogenesi dell’infarto acuto del miocardio. Eventi acuti di vita stressanti come crack finanziari, attacchi terroristici e guerre sono noti fattori scatenanti di eventi cardiaci acuti, come anche gli eventi sportivi, i festeggiamenti in occasione di festività e così via. In questo articolo, analizziamo le basi fi siopatologiche di questi fenomeni passando anche in rassegna le evidenze di efficacia delle tecniche antistress e meditative nella prevenzione e cura.

Keywords: Stress, malattia coronarica ischemica, asse cervello-cuore, meditazione, cuore endocrino, sistema immunitario cardiaco.

  1. Barnes V.A. and Orme-Johnson D.W. (2012). Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in Adolescents and Adults through the Transcendental Meditation(®) Program: A Research Review Update. Curr. Hypertens. Rev., 8(3): 227-242., 10.2174/15734021280353041DOI: 10.2174/15734021280353041
  2. Bottaccioli F. e Bottacioli A.G. (2017). Psiconeuroendocrinoimmunologia e Scienza della Cura Integrata. Il Manuale. Milano: Edra.
  3. Brook R.D., Jackson E.A., Giorgini P. and McGowan C.L. (2015). When and how to recommend ‘alternative approaches’ in the management of high blood pressure. Am. J. Med., 128(6): 567-570., 10.1016/J.AMJMED.014.12.02DOI: 10.1016/J.AMJMED.014.12.02
  4. Brunner E.J. (2017). Social factors and cardiovascular morbidity. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 74(Pt B): 260-268., 10.1016/J.NEUBIOREV.2016.05.00DOI: 10.1016/J.NEUBIOREV.2016.05.00
  5. Cohen B.E., Edmondson D. and Kronish I.M. (2015). State of the Art Review: Depression, Stress, Anxiety, and Cardiovascular Disease. Am. J. Hypertens., 28(11): 1295-1302., 10.1093/AJH/HPV04DOI: 10.1093/AJH/HPV04
  6. Crum-Cianflone N.F., Bagnell M.E., Schaller E., Boyko E.J., Smith B., Maynard C., Ulmer C.S., Vernalis M. and Smith T.C. (2014). Impact of combat deployment and posttraumatic stress disorder on newly reported coronary heart disease among US active duty and reserve forces. Circulation, 129: 1813-1820., 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.00540DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.00540
  7. Emani S. and Binkley P.F. (2010). Mind-body medicine in chronic heart failure. A translational science challenge. Circ. Heart. Fail., 3(6): 715-725., 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.110.95150DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.110.95150
  8. Epelman S., Liu P.P. and Mann D.L. (2015). Role of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms in cardiac injury and repair. Nat. Rev. Immunol., 15(2): 117-129., 10.1038/NRI380DOI: 10.1038/NRI380
  9. Atlas S.A., Kleinert H.D., Camargo M.J., Januszewicz A., Sealey J.E., Laragh
  10. J.H., Schilling J.W., Lewicki J.A., Johnson L.K. and Maack T. (1984). Purification, sequencing and synthesis of natriuretic and vasoactive rat atrial peptide. Nature 309(5970): 717-719., 10.1038/309717ADOI: 10.1038/309717A
  11. Frangogiannis N.G. (2014). The immune system and the remodeling infarcted heart: cell biological insights and therapeutic opportunities. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 63(3): 185-195., 10.1097/FJC.000000000000000DOI: 10.1097/FJC.000000000000000
  12. Gradus J.L., Farkas D.K., Svensson E., Ehrenstein V., Lash T.L., Milstein A., Adler N. and Sørensen H.T. (2015). Associations between stress disorders and cardiovascular disease events in the Danish population. BMJ Open, 5(12): e009334., 10.1136/BMJOPEN-2015-00933DOI: 10.1136/BMJOPEN-2015-00933
  13. Habibović M., Burg M.M. and Pedersen S.S. (2013). Behavioral interventions in patients with an implantable cardioverter defi brillator: lessons learned and where to go from here?. Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol., 36(5): 578-590., 10.1111/PACE.1210DOI: 10.1111/PACE.1210
  14. Hori R., Hayano J., Kimura K., Shibata N. and Kobayashi F. (2015). Psychosocial factors are preventive against coronary events in Japanese men with coronary artery disease: The Eastern Collaborative Group Study 7.7-year follow-up experience. Biopsychosoc. Med., 9(1): 3., 10.1186/S13030-015-0030-DOI: 10.1186/S13030-015-0030-
  15. Janszky I., Ahnve S., Lundberg I. and Hemmingsson T. (2010). Early-onset depression, anxiety and risk of subsequent coronary heart disease: 37-year follow-up of 49,321 young Swedish men. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 56(1): 31-37., 10.1016/J.JACC.2010.03.03DOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2010.03.03
  16. Jones D.P., True H.D. and Patel J. (2017). Leukocyte Trafficking in Cardiovascular Disease: Insights from Experimental Models. Mediators Inflamm., 2017: ID 9746169., 10.1155/2017/974616DOI: 10.1155/2017/974616
  17. Kapa S., DeSimone C.V. and Asirvatham S.J. (2016). Innervation of the heart: an invisible grid within a black box. Trends Cardiovasc. Med., 26(3): 245-257., 10.1016/J.TCM.2015.07.00DOI: 10.1016/J.TCM.2015.07.00
  18. Kim E.S., Hawes A.M. and Smith J. (2014). Perceived neighbourhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction. J. Epidemiol. Community Health, 68(11): 1020-1026., 10.1136/JECH-2014-20400DOI: 10.1136/JECH-2014-20400
  19. Krystel-Whittemore M., Dileepan K.N. and Wood J.G. (2016). Mast cell: a multi-functional master cell. Front. Immunol., 6: 620.
  20. Lichtman J.H., Froelicher E.S., Blumenthal J.A., Carney R.M., Doering L.V., Frasure-Smith N., Freedland K.E., Jaffe A.S., Leifheit-Limson E.C., Sheps D.S., Vaccarino V. and Wulsin L. (2014). Depression as a risk factor for poor prognosis among patients with acute coronary syndrome: systematic review and recommendations: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 129(12): 1350-1369., 10.1161/CIR.000000000000001DOI: 10.1161/CIR.000000000000001
  21. Loucks E.B., Schuman-Olivier Z., Britton W.B., Fresco D.M., Desbordes G., Brewer J.A. and Fulwiler C. (2015). Mindfulness and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: State of the Evidence, Plausible Mechanisms, and Theoretical Framework. Curr. Cardiol. Rep., 17(12): 112., 10.1007/S11886-015-0668-DOI: 10.1007/S11886-015-0668-
  22. Marmot M.G., Rose G., Shipley M. and Hamilton P.J.S. (1978). Employment grade and coronary heart disease in British civil servants. J. Epidemiol. Community Health, 32(4): 244-249., 10.1136/JECH.32.4.24DOI: 10.1136/JECH.32.4.24
  23. Nabi H., Hall M., Koskenvuo M., Singh-Manoux A., Oksanen T., Suominen S., Kivimäki M. and Vahtera J. (2010). Psychological and somatic symptoms of anxiety and risk of coronary heart disease: the health and social support prospective cohort study. Biol. Psychiatry, 67(4): 378-385., 10.1016/J.BIOPSYCH.2009.07.04DOI: 10.1016/J.BIOPSYCH.2009.07.04
  24. Nicholson A., Kuper H. and Hemingway H. (2006). Depression as an aetiologic and prognostic factor in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of 6362 events among 146 538 participants in 54 observational studies. Eur. Heart J., 27(23): 2763-2774., 10.1093/EURHEARTJ/EHL33DOI: 10.1093/EURHEARTJ/EHL33
  25. Obraztsov V.P. and Strazhesko N.D. (1910). The symptomatology and diagnosis of coronary thrombosis. In: Vorobeva V.A. and Konchalovski M.P., editors, Works of the First Congress of Russian Therapists. Moscow: Comradeship Typography of A.E Mamontov.
  26. Olex S., Newberg A. and Figueredo V.M. (2013). Meditation: Should a cardiologist care?. Int. J. Cardiol., 168(3): 1805-1810., 10.1016/J.IJCARD.2013.06.08DOI: 10.1016/J.IJCARD.2013.06.08
  27. Orth-Gomér K., Schneiderman N., Wang H.X., Walldin C., Blom M. and Jernberg T. (2009). Stress reduction prolongs life in women with coronary disease. The Stockholm Women’s Intervention Trial for Coronary Heart Disease (SWITCHD). Circ. Cardiovasc. Qual. Outcomes., 2(1): 25-32., 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.108.81285DOI: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.108.81285
  28. Palma J.-A. and Benarroch E.E. (2014). Neural control of the heart. Neurology, 83(3): 261-271., 10.1212/WNL.000000000000060DOI: 10.1212/WNL.000000000000060
  29. Palmer B. and Clegg D.J. (2015). An Emerging Role of Natriuretic Peptides: Igniting the Fat Furnace to Fuel and Warm the Heart. Mayo Clin. Proc., 90(12): 1666-1678., 10.1016/J.MAYOCP.2015.08.00DOI: 10.1016/J.MAYOCP.2015.08.00
  30. Pan A., Sun Q., Okereke O.I., Rexrode K.M. and Hu F.B. (2011). Depression and risk of stroke morbidity and mortality: a meta-analysis and systematic review. JAMA, 306(11): 1241-1249., 10.1001/JAMA.2011.128DOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2011.128
  31. Pelletier R., Bacon S.L., Arsenault A., Dupuis J., Laurin C., Blais L. and Lavoie K.L. (2015). Relative associations between depression and anxiety on adverse cardiovascular events: does a history of coronary artery disease matter? A prospective observational study. BMJ Open., 5(12): e006582., 10.1136/BMJOPEN-2014-00658DOI: 10.1136/BMJOPEN-2014-00658
  32. Ramos G.C., van den Berg A., Nunes-Silva V., Weirather J., Peters L., Burkard M., Friedrich M., Pinnecker J., Abeßer M., Heinze K.G., Schuh K., Beyersdorf N., Kerkau T., Demengeot J., Frantz S. and Hofmann U. (2017). Myocardial aging as a T-cellmediated phenomenon. PNAS, 114(12): E2420-E2429., 10.1073/PNAS.162104711DOI: 10.1073/PNAS.162104711
  33. Roest A.M., Martens E.J., de Jonge P. and Denollet J. (2010). Anxiety and risk of incident coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 56(1): 38-46., 10.1016/J.JACC.2010.03.0DOI: 10.1016/J.JACC.2010.03.0
  34. Saban K.L., Mathews H.L., DeVon H.A. and Janusek L.W. (2014). Epigenetics and social context: implications for disparity in cardiovascular disease. Aging Dis., 5(5): 346-355., 10.14336/AD.2014.050034DOI: 10.14336/AD.2014.050034
  35. Sánchez-Trujillo L., Vázquez-Garza E., Castillo E.C., García-Rivas G. and Torre-Amione G. (2017). Role of Adaptive Immunity in the Development and Progression of Heart Failure: New Evidence. Arch. Med. Res., 48(1): 1-11., 10.1016/J.ARCMED.2016.12.00DOI: 10.1016/J.ARCMED.2016.12.00
  36. Sims M., Redmond N., Khodneva Y., Durant R.W., Halanych J. and Safford M.M. (2015). Depressive symptoms are associated with incident coronary heart disease or revascularization among blacks but not among whites in the Reasons for Geographical and Racial Differences in Stroke study. Ann. Epidemiol., 25(6): 426-432., 10.1016/J.ANNEPIDEM.2015.03.01DOI: 10.1016/J.ANNEPIDEM.2015.03.01
  37. Steptoe A. and Kivimäki M. (2013). Stress and cardiovascular disease: an update on current knowledge. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 34: 337-354., 10.1146/ANNUREVPUBLHEALTH-031912-11445DOI: 10.1146/ANNUREVPUBLHEALTH-031912-11445
  38. Sumner J.A., Kubzansky L.D., Elkind M.S., Roberts A.L., Agnew-Blais J., Chen Q., Cerdá M., Rexrode K.M., Rich-Edwards J.W., Spiegelman D., Suglia S.F., Rimm E.B. and Koenen K.C. (2015). Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Predict Onset of Cardiovascular Events in Women. Circulation, 132(4): 251- 259., 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.01449DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.01449
  39. Tsiantoulas D., Sage A.P., Mallat Z. and Binder C.J. (2015). Targeting B cells in atherosclerosis: closing the gap from bench to beside, Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 35(2): 296-302., 10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.30356DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.30356
  40. Wei J., Rooks C., Ramadan R., Shah A.J., Bremner J.D., Quyyumi A.A., Kutner M. and Vaccarino V. (2014). Meta-analysis of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia and subsequent cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease. Am. J. Cardiol., 114(2): 187-192., 10.1016/J.AMJCARD.2014.04.02DOI: 10.1016/J.AMJCARD.2014.04.02
  41. Werhwein E.A. and Joyner M.J. (2013). Regulation of blood pressure by the arterial barorefl ex and autonomic nervous system. In: Buijs R.M. and Swaab D.F., editors, Autonomic Nervous system, London: Elsevier., 10.1016/B978-0-444-53491-0.00008-DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-53491-0.00008-
  42. Yusuf S., Hawken S., Ounpuu S., Dans T., Avezum A., Lanas F., McQueen M., Budaj A., Pais P., Varigos J. and Lisheng L. (2004). Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet, 364(9438): 937-952., 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17018-9DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17018-9

Francesco Bottaccioli, Anna Giulia Bottaccioli, in "PNEI REVIEW" 2/2017, pp. 6-23, DOI:10.3280/PNEI2017-002002


FrancoAngeli è membro della Publishers International Linking Association associazione indipendente e no profit per facilitare l'accesso degli studiosi ai contenuti digitali nelle pubblicazioni professionali e scientifiche