Since the 1980s, the phenomena linked to poverty and social precarity have generally been addressed using the concept of exclusion, a concept popularized in Europe and developed particularly in France by authors such as Robert Castel and Serge Paugam. While this concept might apply to the French case, Canadian reality seems quite different. Various statistics relating to poverty, inequality and social mobility in Canada do not corroborate the exclusion hypothesis. For the authors, the opposite phenomenon is at work, namely increasing inclusion, in the sense suggested by the sociology of Niklas Luhmann. In this text Stephen Schecter and Bernard Paquet shall confront the two hypotheses with Canadian statistical data in order to show that the long term tendency of contemporary society points toward inclusion.