French historiography on peace and war has undergone a significant evolution over the last twenty years. On the basis of George Mosse’s suggestions, World War One has been studied by Péronne historians as an event that represents a «matrix» that has given rise to all the subsequent forms of violence that have occurred in other conflicts. The Second World War has been the object of much debate and interpretation. In particular, much attention has been devoted to the Vichy regime and its protagonists, the Resistance movement, the Liberation and the Shoah. Even the process of decolonisation and the wars that accompanied it has interested French historians. In the French historiographic production, peace includes the concept of the end of war, war as grievance and remembering the events of wars. Military history, which has been profoundly renovated, has allowed a further development of historiographical production, which is firmly rooted in the European perspective.