The public debate in the United States on the use of war is very strong as late. Several political scientists and historians are tackling this touchy issue in the recent literature on the international role of the Unites States after September 11. The article is a historiographic appraisal of the subject and concentrates especially on the discussion between the bushites and the liberals in the past two years. After an overview of the general approach historians had on the issue of war and peace, the author delves into the more recent debate raised by the policy of the so called volcanoes, Bush’s military advisors. Although comparing the attitudes of hawks and doves, of neo-cons and liberals, the essay shows how these categories do not necessarily apply to the present situation. Moreover it highlights the relevance of domestic politics in the decision concerning international affairs. From Joseph Nye’ soft power to Robert Kagan’s confrontation between the U.S. and Europe, the author concentrates on what political experts Daalder and Lindsay have called The Bush revolution in foreign policy. Although an apparent break with the traditional approach of the U.S. to international politics, Bush’s security advisors’ approach can be traced back to other examples of American foreign policy strategies.