New Hypotheses on the Role of Italian Democrats in the Cuban Independence War ABSTRACT: Looking back over the events concerning the mobilization and contribution of Italian democrats supporting the Cuban war of independence at the end of the 19th Century, the author focuses on two questions which until now have been undervalued. The first concerns the official attitude of the Garibaldi movement, personified by Ricciotti Garibaldi who, by refusing to side with those opposing Spain, the Latin sister, contributed to undermine a more significant Italian presence in the war of liberation in Cuba. The other aspect concerns the involvement of Francesco Federico Falco in the Cuban Revolution. Above and beyond his purely military merits he gave a significant contribution to the development of 20th Century Cuban culture. Thanks to his relationship with Falco the then young intellectual Fernando Ortis, later one of the greatest exponent of Cuban culture, had the opportunity to collaborate in editing the journal La Cultura Latina and to come into contact with the international scientific community, and particularly with the Italian school of Anthropology of Cesare Lombroso.