the paths of eugenics. From the beginning of the 20th century, in most industrialized European countries, a group of ideas, which developed out of the hygienist doctrine, has done much to set up an ideology of exclusion. A sideline of medical discourse has led many psychiatrists to adopt and support the discriminatory concepts of the eugenic theses. These theses, based on the fear of racial degeneracy, claim in the name of science, to define their causes and treat their consequences. It would seem of paramount importance to track down the theoretical arguments legitimizing a discourse that is so menacing of human rights, particularly since the question of eugenics remains very much alive.