The Unsuccessful Elite. Roman Bourgeoisie and Papal States (1847-1870) (by Marco De Nicolò) - The essay analyses the role of the Roman bourgeoisie in the last decades of the Papal power and it affords the questions if it was an elite or not. The social and political context in which the Roman bourgeoisie grew and made its choices did not allow it more that narrow margins of action because the productive structure did not spur investments in landed properties and because the administrative institutions open to laymen allowed only poor initiative. In addition the Papal power, hostile to modernization and timorous of innovations, restrained every possible political and social development. The conclusion is that the Roman bourgeoisie was weak, with a poor political and cultural conscience of itself, so that it was not able to play an elite’s role.