The Roman Paradigm. Relativism as European Identity - In this essay, the Author sets up Heidegger’s reading of the European civilization’s identity (anti-modern, anti-democratic, anti-Christian, and pro-nazi) against R. Brague’s. A reading, the one put forward by the French intellectual, which Vender likes. Brague in fact shows to which extent Roman dialectics has been more prolific than Greek ontologism in cultural transmission — in the way it took place between Greeks and Romans, Jews and Christians. In his conclusions the Author then widens his perspective including the relationship between Europe and Islam, stressing in particular the debt that he first has incurred with the second, thus emphasizing the uselessness of ontological references to the notion of European roots.